Geo l15 flood_drought_india

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  1. 1. Inundation of land India Monsoon climate Rainfall concentrated to limited months Large network of rivers Possibilities of flood and drought Flood
  2. 2. -Heavy rainfall -cloud burst - La-Nina Flood: Natural Reasons
  3. 3. 1) Bad drainage (terai) 2) Basin topography (PN-HN) 3) Narrow river valley (Brahmaputra) 4) Siltation of river bed (Kosi) 5) Landslide in the course of river Flood: Natural Reasons
  4. 4. 1) Global warming melting of glaciers 2) Deforestation siltation- lower channel capacity 3) Construction of dams and canals 4) Poor settlement management Flood: Anthropogenic Reasons
  5. 5. 1) Ganga-Yamuna system 2) Brahmaputra Manas 3) Mahanadi 4) Weinganga (Godavari) 5) Bhima (Krishna) Flood-prone areas
  6. 6. IPCC 4th and 5th report: Increase in events of heavy rainfall in Himalayan region Deforestation, haphazard construction, dams in upper reaches of rivers Sand mining, habitation near river valley Problems of floods
  7. 7. Administrative strategies: Flood management program (11th Plan) Flood control commission to control flood in 23 rivers Information exchange from Nepal and China about volume of water in rivers in their origin Solutions for flood
  8. 8. Forestation on the banks of rivers Better settlement management Watershed management and rainwater harvesting than construction of dams and canals Solutions for flood
  9. 9. Rainfall less or equal to 75 cm or less than 60 cm = Drought Drought
  10. 10. Areas having more than 25% of variability of normal rainfall drought-prone 1) Plateau region 2) Western RJ, Kutchh 3) Ladakh Drought-prone areas
  11. 11. Drought is not only about water scarcity much more complex in India Drought is related development Drought = agrarian poverty = high IMR, high MMR, low literacy Problem of Drought
  12. 12. Drought can affect only if the farmers are not prepared. 1) Economic status of farmers 2) Irrigation facility 3) Alternative livelihood Problems of Drought
  13. 13. Agriculture income Irrigation facility Alternate livelihood To fight against Drought
  14. 14. Where agriculture is totally depended on rainfall Areas without irrigation Dry season = land fallowing If rain fails = agricultural poverty Low productivity, subsistence farming, high poverty 55% of net sown area of the country Rainfed-Areas
  15. 15. 1) Rain-shadow regions of western Ghats - Telangana, Rayalseema, Vidarbha Drought-prone areas
  16. 16. 2) Malawa, Bundelkhand, Mewar, 3) Eastern India - High rainfall but misuse or under use of water resources administrative lapses underdevelopment of irrigation network Drought-prone areas
  17. 17. 4) North-east India Wettest part of India but no availability of water storage facility Water shortage in dry season Drought-prone areas
  18. 18. Rainfed areas produce 50% of Indias grain production 90% of pulse/millets production Most of the cash crops, industrial crops exclusively from these areas Important for food security Home of 66% of livestock population of India Max potential for livestock expansion Importance of Rainfed areas
  19. 19. Most of their farmers grow cash-crops (cotton, ground nut, tobacco) if crop fails reduce their purchasing power hunger- malnutrition Low Human Development Problems of Rainfed areas
  20. 20. Arid, semi-arid regions Land fallowing, soil- erosion Penninsular region - Difficult to construct canals + low ground water level Problems of Rainfed areas
  21. 21. Rainfed areas more than 40% of Indias BPL population (most of them are landless labourers) If farmers of rainfed areas are strengthen much of the poverty in India will be reduced Problems of rainfed areas
  22. 22. -Land abandoning soil erosion -Reduction in production food security -Low productivity -Poverty (most of the small and marginal farmers live in drought-prone areas) Implications of drought
  23. 23. Expansion of irrigation facility Use ground water in water-crisis situation rainwater harvesting Check-dams Watershed- management Solution to drought
  24. 24. Rainwater Harvesting Small check-dams Small drought-preventing techniques
  25. 25. Sustainable way to use water resource Understanding the natural resource in its entirety Integrated or system approach Human intervention should be limited to natural limits Watershed management
  26. 26. Watershed = geo- hydrological unit that drains at a common point A main river and its catchment area Meaning of Watershed
  27. 27. River, streams, soil, surrounding forest, riverine ecosystem, wild life Surrounding agriculture field, villages Human beings (active participation) Components of Watershed
  28. 28. Construction of small earthen check-dams Network of small dams instead of large concrete dams No blockage of river Storage and sustainable use of water Watershed Management
  29. 29. Afforestation on river banks Increase in ground water level Increase in water level in river Soil conservation Entire area can be greener Watershed Management
  30. 30. Watershed Management program in 1973 2009-2010 Drought-prone area Program + Desert development program + integrated watershed development program = Integrated watershed Management Program Institutional and capacity building assistance from center Watershed development in India
  31. 31. Successful Watershed Management experiments: 1) Aravari project in RJ under Rajendra singh of Tarun Bharat Sangh 2) Rale gaon siddhi (MH) under Anna Hazare Watershed development in India
  32. 32. management can work only under cooperative atmosphere of entire area Community participation Strong panchayati raj system Decentralized system Peoples participation
  33. 33. Local population to participate in watershed management Better soil and water availability better production Better income Environment and ecology balance each other Involvement of local population
  34. 34. Increase in water availability Multiple crop in a year increase income Increase farm income more access to modern inputs Increase in agriculture productivity Increase fodder availability = more yield of milk Benefits of watershed management
  35. 35. Agriculture income Irrigation facility Alternate livelihood To fight against Drought
  36. 36. Alternate income to farmers from: Animal husbandry (dairying, meat, poultry, animal products, bee keeping, seri culture) Agro-forestry Food-processing industries, handicraft, tourism Solution to Drought
  37. 37. For Availability of alternative employment in rural areas Connectivity, transportation network, 24x7 electricity required Facility of crop-insurance, formal banking to cushion against economic crisis Solution to Droughts
  38. 38. Agriculture income Irrigation facility Alternate livelihood To fight against Drought
  39. 39. Development of agro- infrastructure check-dams, tanks, rain-water harvesting systems, wells/tube wells, cold storages Use of Soil conservation techniques Agro-practice in Drought-prone areas
  40. 40. Choice of crops No = Water intensive crops like, rice, cotton, sugarcane Yes = Less water intensive crops millets (Jawar, Bajra, Ragi) Agro-practice in Drought-prone areas
  41. 41. Optimum use of water in irrigation -Drip irrigation -sprinklers Agro-practice in Drought-prone areas
  42. 42. India limited irrigation potential there will be some areas out of irrigation network Risk diversification: Agro-silvi Pastoral system Agro-practice in drought prone areas
  43. 43. Drought-resistance variety Conservation of soil moisture mulching Pre-monsoon ploughing and soil dressing Deep drilling of seed and fertilizers crop-rotation Agro-practice in drought prone areas
  44. 44. Provide them: Subsidies Crop-insurance PDS / Direct cash transfer Guaranteed employment Development of rural assets Drought-prone area development plan
  45. 45. Flood Flood-prone areas Problems solution Drought Drought-prone + Rainfed areas Solution to drought situation