Intro to Geography: Climate

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Transcript of Intro to Geography: Climate

  1. 1. Climate
  2. 2. Weather vs. Climate Weather- The day to day changes in atmospheric conditions for a location Its snowing in Charlotte or it is hot and dry in Seattle Studied by a meteorologist Climate- The long term (average) weather for a region The climate in the Caribbean is generally warm/sunny. Studied by a climatologist
  3. 3. Classifying Climate Koppen System Most widely used Based on temperature and precipitation patterns Correspond with vegetation regions Includes 6 major climate categories
  4. 4. Koppen System Based on temperature characteristics (A)humid tropical climates (C) humid mesothermal climates -mild winter (D) humid microthermal climates - severe winter (E) polar climates
  5. 5. Koppen System Characteristically dry regions (B) Arid climates desert climates- extremely arid steppe climates- semiarid Temperatures range from very hot to very cold.
  6. 6. Koppen System (H) Highland climates worlds mountainous regions vegetation and climate vary rapidly with elevation
  7. 7. World Climate Regions (Koppen)
  8. 8. World Vegetation Regions (biomes)
  9. 9. Humid Tropical Climates(A) Tropical Rainforest and Tropical Monsoon High temperature and humidity Frequent heavy rain Massive vegetation growth Tropical Savanna Climate High temperature Less rain, transition zone
  10. 10. Humid Tropical Climates (A)
  11. 11. Arid Climates (B) Steppe Climate Transitional between humid and deserts dry savanna Desert Climate Very dry Amount of precipitation is less than half of potential ET Greatest temperature ranges in the world! Result of precipitation effectiveness
  12. 12. Arid Climates (B)
  13. 13. Humid Mesothermal Climate (C) (mild winter) Mediterranean Climate Warm/dry in summer and mild/wet in winter Dry season in summer Humid Subtropical Climate Mild winters and hot summers No dry season (high humidity/ showers) Marine West Coast Climate Temperate oceanic climate Westerlies Cloudy foggy and rainy
  14. 14. Humid Mesothermal Climate (C)
  15. 15. Humid Microthermal Climates (D) (severe winter) Humid Continental (hot summer) Productive agriculturally Climate classification for New Jersey! Humid Continental (mild summer) Poleward of the hot summer regions (like New England) Subarctic climate Short/cool summers and long/very cold winters Permafrost- permanently frozen layer of subsoil
  16. 16. Humid Microthermal Climates (D) (severe winter)
  17. 17. Polar Climates (E) Tundra Climate Close to the poles, avg. temp around 40 F Treeless, low growing vegetation Ice-sheet climate All average monthly temperatures below freezing Precipitation limited to fine/dry snow
  18. 18. Polar Climates (E)
  19. 19. Highlands Climate (H) Based on elevation High variability from hour to hour and place to place
  20. 20. Highlands Climate (H) Tree Line- altitude above which low temperatures and severe wind limit growth of vegetation Snow Line- Where warmth of summer is not enough to melt snow from the previous year
  21. 21. Highlands Climate (H)
  22. 22. Climograph Plots average monthly temperature and rainfall
  23. 23. Climographs
  24. 24. Climate Factors
  25. 25. Climate Controls Latitude Air circulation and pressure belts Ocean currents Altitude Landform barriers Human activity Deforestation, increase of heat trapping gases
  26. 26. Latitude Less direct sunlight = cooler climate
  27. 27. Air Circulation Three important things to remember! Warm air rises and cool air falls result of density differences Wind always blows from high to low result of pressure differences Warm air holds more moisture When air cools moisture condenses to form rain
  28. 28. High and Low Pressure Cyclone- warm air converges and rises Anticyclone- cool air sinks and diverges
  29. 29. Pressure Belts
  30. 30. Atmospheric Circulation
  31. 31. World Precipitation
  32. 32. Ocean Currents Oceans take longer to change temperature than air It takes water longer to warm up in the summer and longer to cool off in the winter Keeps the coast cool in the summer and warm in the winter
  33. 33. Ocean Currents
  34. 34. Altitude Temperatures fall by 6 C with every 1000 m gained in elevation
  35. 35. Landform Barriers Windward- facing the direction the wind is coming from Leeward- facing the direction the wind is blowing away from (sheltered)
  36. 36. Future Climate
  37. 37. Climate Change Global Warming- recent rise in atmospheric temperatures 11 of 12 hottest years in recorded history have occurred since 1995 What are the causes? Natural or human related? Remember, correlation does not imply causation!
  38. 38. Hockey Stick Graph
  39. 39. Bigger Picture
  40. 40. Climate Change
  41. 41. Climate Change
  42. 42. Bigger Picture
  43. 43. Possible Causes Orbital variations Milankovitch Cycles variations in eccentricity, obliquity, and precession Happens over thousands of years
  44. 44. Possible Causes Atmospheric changes Change in composition of atmosphere Increase in greenhouse gases Volcanic activity
  45. 45. Possible Causes Solar Activity Sunspot cycle is 11 years from solar maximum to solar minimum
  46. 46. Possible Causes Landmass changes Plate tectonics/movement of land masses continents in polar latitudes Impact events Asteroids/comets largest known-15 km diameter Impact winter
  47. 47. Future Climates Hard to predict because of high variability We know climate will change based on studies of the past We will most likely go through periods of warming and cooling, just as in the past Changes in human population and activity will change our predictions.