URBAN Geography - Intro

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URBAN Geography - Intro. Urbanization = an increase in….. the # of people living in cities the % of people living in cities The literal physical building up of cities Stats….. 1800 – 3% 1850 – 6% 1900 – 14% 1950 – 30% 2000 – 47% 2025 – 61%. Urbanization – Intro – cont’d. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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URBAN Geography - IntroUrbanization = an increase in.. the # of people living in citiesthe % of people living in citiesThe literal physical building up of citiesStats..1800 3%1850 6%1900 14%1950 30%2000 47% 2025 61%

Urbanization Intro contdUrbanization is a measure of development (abundant AG tech, people leave rural areas for cities for work and services)MDCs - @75% urbanLDCs - @40 % urbanBUT LDCs contain most of worlds largest cities (6 of top 10 in LDCs)i.e. MDCs have highest levels of urbanization, LDCs have highest ratesUrbanization Intro contdLDCs = mega cities: rapid pop growth and migration to cities has caused explosion of urban growth in LDCs. LDCs cannot support booming growth. Mega cities plagued by chaotic, unplanned growthno jobs, poor infrastructure, inadequate housing, urban squalor, horrible pollution, poverty, squatter settlementsMega Cities MX City and Mumbai, India

Urbanization Intro contdMDCs = world cities worldwide centers of econ, pol, cultural activity and influence. Top tier = econ and cultural powerhousesNYC, London, TokyoSecond tier.Govnt Seats DC, Moscow, ParisPop Culture LA, MumbaiIndustrial Centers MX City, Sao PauloWorld Cities Tokyo and London

Defining Urban SettlementsWhere does the city begin??Social distinctions betwn urban/rural..Cities haveLots of people most of whom are anonymousHigh pop densityJob specializationSocial heterogeneity (diverse)Physical Distinction Betwn Urban and RuralCity Center: legal boundary (i.e. DC proper). Independent and self governing unit (city officials, taxes, providing services, etc.)

Urbanized Area: central city + surrounding suburbs (i.e. Arlington, Herndon = urbanized area of DC)Physical Distinction Betwn Urban and RuralMetropolitan Statistical Area (MSA): the functional area/region of a city i.e.. its zone of influence

Megalopolis: When MSAs overlap and create one continuous highly urbanized complex. Ex: from Boston to DC = Boswash CorridorBoswash Corridor - Megalopolis

Central Business District CBDCBD = city center/historic downtown within the central cityCBD is compact less than 1% of urban area but has large %% of shops, offices, public institutions, sports complexes, etc.

Historically services were in CDB but today have moved to suburbsCBDLand value in CBD is extremely highDemand for space leads to sky scraperssince cannot build out you build up unique skylinesLittle manufacturing in CBD (not enough land)Few people actually live in CBD (rent too high)Spatial Organization of Urban AreasPeople and activities in cities are not distributed randomly they concentrate in particular places depending on their social characteristics3 prominent models explain city organization..Concentric Zone ModelDev in 1923 by E.W. BurgessBased on ChicagoConcentric rings of dev coming outward from the core (CBD)Each ring = diff types of dev and econ activitiesLand value decreases as you move outModel based on process of invasion and succession newest immigrants move into old housing near city center and push earlier groups outwardConcentric Zone ModelZones1.) CBD non residential activities2.) Transition Zone industry and poor quality housing (newest immigrants)Industrial Workers houses working classMiddle Class/better homesCommuter Zone high class residencies

Sector ModelDev in 1933 by Homer HoytAlso based on ChicagoSays city dev in sectors not rings. Sectors radiate out from CBD like spokes on a wheelActivities expand in wedgesSeems to work better for Latin American cities (MX City fits sector model)Hoyt Sector Model

Multiple Nuclei Model1945 Harris and UllmanCity doesnt have just one central core but many nodes of business and cultural activityLos Angeles = classic example no real downtown but instead many independent nodes of high land value and business activity Santa Monica, Pasadena, Hollywood, etc.LA Multiple Nuclei

Multiple Nuclei ModelThis is a better model for cities built mostly after WW II and post auto dependent. Older cites built b/f auto are more compact w/ real downtown (CBD). Newer cities have more sprawl and multiple nuclei.

*** NO city matches any one model perfectlyCity ModelsTo use models for data mush have good data Census Tracts cities divided into about 5,000 resident census tract sections (often follow neighborhood lines). Every 10 yrs gather info about people in that tract (race, age, median income, occupation, level of education, etc.)Criticisms of Models1.) Models too simplistic and fail to consider all of the varied and complicated reasons that cause people to select a certain location

2.) all 3 models created in U.S. between world wars are they relevant to other countries and are they still relevant today?Inner City ProblemsIn U.S. cities greatest contrast is betwn suburbs and inner city

Ghettoization: process of inner city decay

Problems..Inner City ProblemsOld, poor quality housingFiltering subdividing big old homes into several apartments and use for low income rentRedlining: banks draw lines on map and refuse to loan $$ withinPublic housing projects (subsidized pay 30% of income in rent) run by govntpoorly maintained, drugs, crime, violence, gangs, high density, culture of poverty, etc.Scattered public housing pros/cons?Inner City Problems

Chicago housing projects.government subsidized housingInner City Problems2.) Social ProblemsPermanent underclass trapped in perpetual cycle (unemployment, teen pregnancy, drugs, gangs, single parents, welfare, high school dropout, etc. Can you get out? (There Are No Children Here)Racial and ethnic segregation disproportionate minority representationInner City Problems contd3.) Economic ProblemsOften lacks adequate public services and lacks tax base to pay for them (i.e. schools, roads, etc.)Annexation legally adding land area to a citys boundaries. Most suburbs do not want to be annexed in and rarely happens anymoreInner Cities Urban RenewalRevitalization new attempts to fix up downtownbuy poor houses, build new, shopping, cultural attractionstry to b ring in young, single professionalsGentrification: process where inner city neighborhoods turn into expensive/fashionable urban districts (squeezes out low income residents)Problems of SuburbsRapid growth of Suburbs in 2nd half of 20th C (i.e. auto, GI Bill, mass production of housing)1950:20% in suburbs40% in central city 40% small towns/rural areas2000: 50% in suburbs30% in central city20% small towns/rural areas

Suburbs contdCounter urbanization net migration from urban to rural areas (happening in some parts of N. American and W. Eur for first time). More people moving to rural areas than are leaving.Exurbanite: people who leave city to move to suburbs or rural areaSuburbs contdUrban Sprawl: goes hand and hand w/ transportationHUGE sprawl after the automobileOlder cities like NYC, pre-auto densely packed, narrow streets, lots of high riseNewer cities like LA, Atlanta post auto are sprawling areas with clogged superhighways, multiple nuclei, and far flung suburbs that operate independently of each otherSuburbs contdSuburbanization is a process NOT a placeBegan after WW II, mass phenomenon by end of 20th C

GI Bill, mass auto ownership, and mass production of housing drives suburbanizationSuburban Sprawl cookie cutter neighborhoods

Suburbs contdCons of Suburbs.Land hungry process vanishing green, encroaching on good AG landLose unique sense of place all are cookie cutter alike (strip malls, chain stores)Auto dependent and fuel consumption (pollution)Rush hour commuteSuburban Commute

Suburbia - Homogenization

Suburbs contdSuburban growth comes at expense of inner cityErosion of tax baseSegregation poor, elderly, singles, minorities in cities. Young families, white, educated wealthier move to suburbs. (Suburbs replace vertical seg)Spatial Segregation rarely go to others placeZoning also fuels segregationSuburbs contdEdge Cities: urban sprawl sometimes takes the form of edge citiesLocated on outskirts of larger cities and come to serve many of same functions as large cityOften located off a beltway surrounding main cityClassic ex: Tysons CornerSmart Growth/Urban Growth BoundariesLimit sprawl through long range planning and efficient transportationPromote compact and contiguous dev (i.e. fill in the gaps)Protect farmland, recreation, wildlifeSet growth boundariesIn U.S. MD, OR, NJ, RI, and WA lead the way w/ smart growthCentral Place TheoryTheory developed by Walter Christaller in 1930s in Germany. Looks at relationship betwn cities and surrounding communities based on peoples demands for goods and servicesCentral Place: place (big city) people travel to make purchasesMarket Area: areas people travel from for purchases (i.e. the functional region of the central place).where do you go to buy groceries, a car, medical treatment, etc.?Central Place Visual

Central Place TheoryLarge cities are the econ hubs for their region b/c they provide a great variety of goods and services not available in smaller communities

Hinterlands: smaller towns in periphery of big city/central place. People from hinterland often travel to central place for big city amenities (i.e. sports teams, cultural events, restaurants, etc.). Small towns in hinterland contain fewer goods and services than central place.Central Place TheorySize of Market Area.assume you wanted to open a new store, how do you determine 1.) if it will be profitable and 2.) where the best location is within the market?? The answer to these questions varies for all services based on range and threshold.Central Place TheoryRange: maximum distance people willing to travel for your serviceOften expressed in time not distanceShort distances for groceries, long for bball game. Short distance for gas, long distance for medical treatmentMust