I. Cell theory II. Eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic cells III. Cell structure IV. Cell-cell communication...

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Transcript of I. Cell theory II. Eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic cells III. Cell structure IV. Cell-cell communication...

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I. Cell theory II. Eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic cells III. Cell structure IV. Cell-cell communication V. Plant vs. animal cells Cells: structure and function Slide 2 I. Cell theory All living things are composed of cells and cells form a unifying structural basis of organization (1838). -- Structure and function (1900s) -- All cells come from preexisting cells (1862) Slide 3 -- no nucleus-- have a nucleus -- have membrane bound organelles -- no membrane bound organelles -- plant and animal cells-- bacterial cells II. Eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic cells EukaryotesProkaryotes Slide 4 Fig. 3.4, p. 33 Remaining organelles Cytoplasm = Protoplasm = Cell = III. Cell Structure: Subunits of the cell Cell wall Cytosol = fluid of the cell Vacuole Nucleus Slide 5 A. Cell wall -- defines the shape of the cell Secondary cell wall Primary cell wall Middle lamella Intercellular space Slide 6 A. Cell wall Rigidity = strength, support, and protection cellulose fibrils 2. Primary cell wall: network of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, glycoproteins 3. Secondary cell wall: derived from primary wall, include lignin 1. Middle lamella: layer of pectin Slide 7 B. Plasma membrane: -- selectively permeable: regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell -- Composed of lipids, protein and carbohydrates Fig. 3.7, p. 37 carbohydrates lipids proteins Slide 8 C. Organelles 1. Nucleus (pl. nuclei) -- Stores hereditary material (DNA) -- Control center of the cell Slide 9 2. Vacuole -- Stores water, nutrient reserves, excess minerals, and toxic waste -- Recycles cellular materials -- Maintains pressure Slide 10 3. Mitochondria (sing.: mitochondrion) -- Powerhouses of the cell; site of cellular respiration Fig. 3.13, p. 42 Slide 11 4. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): -- Network of membrane channels; carry material around the cell ribosomes -- Rough ER: protein synthesis -- Smooth ER: lipid secretion, membrane assembly Slide 12 5. Ribosomes -- responsible for protein synthesis Slide 13 6. Plastids a. Chloroplast: green -- Photosynthesis -- Chlorophyll pigment b. Chromoplast: color -- Carotenoid pigment (yellow, orange, red) c. Leucoplast: colorless -- Store starch and oils Slide 14 7. Dictyosomes (Golgi bodies) -- Flattened membrane sacs -- Process products of the ER -- post offices of the cell vesicles Slide 15 -- through secretion of specific compounds IV. Cell-cell communication -- through plasmodesmata (sing.: plasmodesma): cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells Fig. 3.20, p. 50 Slide 16 V. Plant vs. animal cells Plasma membrane = Cell membrane Nucleus Nucleus ERER Ribosomes Ribosomes Mitochondria Mitochondria Dictysomes= Golgi Cell wall Large central vacuole Plastids (ex. chloroplast) Plasmodesmata Plant cellsAnimal cells