Government 2.0 Explained

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  • 1. Government 2.0: Utilization Model,Implementation Scenarios, &RelationshipsAuthorsGohar Feroz Khan (Korea University of Technology & Education, South Korea)Bobby Swar (SolBridge International School of Business, South Korea)Pre-ECIS workshop: E-Government 2.0: Case studies and experience reportsJune 4, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
  • 2. Table of Contents What is social media? Social media defined Social media-based government Government 2.0 vs. e-govt. How is Social Media Used in Public Sector? Method ResultsThe big pictureGovt. 2.0 Utilization modelGovt. 2.0 implementation scenariosGovt. 2.0 Relationships Conclusion
  • 3. What is Social Media? Social media consists of a variety of tools andtechnologies that includes: Collaborative projects (e.g.,Wikipediaandwikispaces), Blogs (e.g.,WordPress) and microblogs (e.g.,Twitter), Content communities (e.g.,YouTube), Social networking sites (e.g., Facebook), Virtual game worlds (e.g.,World ofWarcraft), Virtual social worlds (e.g.,Second Life), and All other Web 2.0platformsthat facilitate the creation &exchange of UGC.
  • 4. Social Media Defined A Web 2.0 based technologies/tools that allows thecreation and exchange ofuser-generated contentswhileletting users establish one or more of these: Identity Conversations Connectivity (i.e., presence) Relationships Reputation Groups, and Share contents. (Khan, 2013, p.2)
  • 5. What is Government 2.0? Is driven by social media/Web 2.0 Also known as: Collaborative Government (McGuire, 2006), Do-it-yourself Government (Dunleavy & Margetts,2010), Government as a Platform (OReilly, 2010), Social Government (Khan, et al., 2012), or We-Government (Linders, 2012), among others.
  • 6. Government 2.0 VS., E-GovernmentTable 1 e-Government VS., Government 2.0e-Government Government 2.0Technology Static enterprise anddomain specifictechnologies;Web 1.0 phenomenon;Consumer and commoditisedtechnologies;Web 2.0 & Social Media;Strategy Inside-Out Outside-InService Focus Citizens as Receivers Citizens as Active Participants
  • 7. Research Question How is Social Media Used in PublicSector?
  • 8. How is Social Media Used inPublic Sector? Method (Inductive Approach) A Web survey of 200 govt. websites from 40 countries (20Developed and 20 Developing), to look for:1) SNS2) multimedia sharing services3) discussion forums ,4) blogging ,5) wikis ,6) rich site summery , and7) social tagging services, Coded either as yes or no.
  • 9. How is Social Media Used inPublic Sector? Method (Inductive Approach) Also, reviewed 45 Web 2.0 initiatives from around theworld.Each initiative was assessed based on a codingscheme covering four dimensions: 1) citizens engagement, 2) mass collaboration, 3) social transaction, and 4) Web 2.0 complexityThe variables were coded as: 1) low, 2) medium,and 3) high to access the four dimensions
  • 10. Results The Big Picture: Social Media in PublicSector Govt. 2.0 Utilization Model Govt. 2.0 Implementation Scenarios Govt. 2.0 Relationships
  • 11. The Big Picture: Social Mediain Public Sector This is what we found it isPosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesPosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesMass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Mass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Social transactionSocial transaction-SM use is mostly informational and limitedly collaboration and transactional.
  • 12. Social Media in Public Sector This is what it should bePosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesPosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesMass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Mass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Social transactionSocial transaction
  • 13. The Big Picture The social media pipe (i.e., socialmedia tools/technologies) connectsproducer and consumer orprosumers (i.e., governmentagencies, citizens, andbusinesses) where the governmentservices are co-produced thatflows in both directions makinggovernment and citizen partners inthe delivery of public services.Figure 1. Conceptual Model of Social Media Use in Public Sector
  • 14. Govt. 2.0 Utilization ModelFigure 2: Government 2.0 Utilization Model
  • 15. 1. Information Socialization (IS) At this stage, public sector leverage socialmedia as an informational and participatorychannel to increase citizens awareness andenable them to monitor and participate ingovernment activities.
  • 16. Socialization of informationis achieved in two ways: Simple Information Socialization, and Complex Information Socialization
  • 17. Simple InformationSocialization Simple information socialization isachieved through merely incorporatingsocial media tools in the existinggovernment websites e.g., through incorporating commentsand discussions features, and/or through establishing dedicatedsocial media pages/accounts (e.g.,Facebook fan page or Twitteraccount) to delivery day-to-dayinformation/news to the citizens.
  • 18. Complex InformationSocialization Complex information socializationrequires establishing advancesocial media/web 2.0 basedinformational government portalsfor informational and participatorypurposes, such as:, and
  • 19. Note An important use of the socialization of informationis in situation where the immediate delivery ofinformation/news is crucial, such as: disseminating news and information about public safetyand in crisis management situations such as,weather,traffic,diseases, andnature or man-made disasters.
  • 20. 2. Mass Collaboration At this stage, public sector leveragesocial media tools to poster mass socialcollaboration between government andcitizens and cross agency collaboration. Mass collaboration was instrumental in regulation, crowd sourcing, and lawenforcement. Mostly observed in Developedcountries
  • 21. Example 1-Regulation For example, the Peer-To-Patent ( by the Patent andTrademark Office (USPTO) ofthe United States is a goodexample of mass governmentand citizen social collaborationin reinforcing regulations.
  • 22. Example 2-Law Enforcement Another example is the Koreangovernments smart phone appsdeveloped to enable mass collaboration inreporting illegal car parking, wastedisposal, energy misuse, and reportingother inappropriate behaviour.
  • 23. Example 3-Croud Sourcing Similarly, a good exampleof croudsourcing is theapps for democracyinitiative: A U.S. governmentinitiative to engage thepublic in developing newapplications fordemocracy.
  • 24. 3. Social Transaction Public sector use (limitedly though) so