Give & Let Live

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Blood Donation Training Presentation

Transcript of Give & Let Live

  • Give & Let Live

    Blood Donation Campaign MMSA January 2013

  • What are Blood Components?

    oPlasma oRed Blood Cells (RBCs) oWhite Blood Cells (WBCs) oPlatelets

  • Plasma:

    It is a pale yellow mixture of Water, protein & salts Plasma which is 90% water constitutes 55% of blood volume.

  • Red Blood Cells:

    RBCs primary function is carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. They also carry waste CO2 from the tissues to the lungs where it can be breathed out.

  • WBCs: Are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against infections & FBs. There are two types: Agranulocytes produces antibodies which lock onto antigens on the surface of the microbes. Granulocytes which digests the microbes the antibodies lock on.

  • Platelets:

    They help in formation of thrombi (clots) Are a natural source for growth factors

  • How do we Classify Blood? There are four main blood types: A, B, AB & O. These blood types are sub categorized into: Rhesus (RhD) system: Negative (-) & Positive (+). AB is the universal recipient & O negative is the universal donor. Compatibility is reversed for plasma products: AB type is the universal plasma donor and O type is the universal plasma recipient.

  • History of Blood Donation: The first successful blood transfusion was carried by Dr. Richard

    Lower who used animals as subjects. A patient died after receiving blood from a calf which showed the dangers of using animal blood. Transfusions of human blood continued to cause unexplained deaths until 1900 when Dr. Karl Landsteiner of Vienna discovered the four different blood groups. All blood is now tested for HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and Syphilis. In the last 50 years, volunteer blood donors have saved and improved the quality of millions of lives with their gift.

  • Blood Group Personalities: In Korea & Japan they link Blood types to personalities like zodiac signs. Blood type A: Good Traits: Conservative, introverted, reserved, patient, punctual. Bad Traits: Obsessive, stubborn, self conscious and uptight. Blood type B: Good Traits: Creative, flexible, individualistic, optimistic and

    passionate. Bad Traits: Forgetful, irresponsible and self-centered. Blood type AB: Good Traits: Cool, controlled, empathic, introverted and rational. Bad Traits: Aloof, critical, indecisive and unforgiving. Blood type O: Good Traits: Ambitious, athletic, robust and self-confident. Bad Traits: Arrogant, insensitive, ruthless and vain.

  • Why Donate Blood? Every 3 seconds someone needs blood. A single unit of blood can save up to 3 lives. There is no substitute for human blood. Donated red blood cells must be used within 42 days of collection. Donated platelets must be used within 5 days of collection. Platelets give those with leukemia and other cancers a chance to live. Donating blood gives you a sense of community spirit & its free. Fourteen tests, 11 of which are for infectious diseases, are performed on each unit of donated blood, so you get a free mini check up. Shortages of all types of blood occur during the summer and winter holidays. If all blood donors gave 2 to 4 times a year, it would help prevent blood shortages.

  • Effects of Donating Blood: In an article published in the British Medical Journal, researchers found that men who routinely donated blood, had a reduced risk of suffering a Myocardial infarction (Heart Attack). With heart disease being the number one cause of death in males, this is, indeed, an important health benefit of donating blood. How does blood donation help with iron overload? Blood donation removes some of the excess iron which can cause free radical formation in the body.

  • Anemia

    Anemia is a condition in which the body doesnt have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein inside red blood cells. It gives red blood cells their red color. People with anemia do not have enough hemoglobin.

  • Causes & Risk Factors:

    Poor Diet. Certain Medications e.g. Chloramphenicol. Pregnancy. Long term kidney disease. Problems with bone marrow e.g. lymphoma, leukemia. Hereditary e.g. Sickle Cell Disease. Heavy blood loss e.g. Hemorrhage. Chronic diseases such as cancer, ulcerative colitis, or rheumatoid arthritis.

  • Treatment Treatment should be directed at the cause of the anemia, and may include: Blood transfusions (Most commonly). Corticosteroids or other medicines that suppress the immune system. Erythropoietin, a medicine that helps your bone marrow make more blood cells. Supplements of iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, or other vitamins and minerals.

  • Common Types of Anemia

    Iron Deficiency Anemia. Megaloblastic Anemia. Aplastic Anemia. Sickle Cell Disease. Thalassemia.

  • Iron Deficiency Anemia: Iron is a key part of red blood cells. Without iron, the blood cannot carry oxygen effectively.

    Women are at an increased risk due to blood loss during menstruation & due to increased needs of iron during pregnancy. Cancer in the esophagus stomach or colon, leads to increased bleeding which leads to iron deficiency anemia.

  • Megaloblastic Anemia:

    Megaloblastic anemia is usually caused by a deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B12. B-12 is important in RBC formation. Other less common causes are: Alcohol abuse, leukemia and chemotherapy.

  • Aplastic Anemia: It is a condition in which your bone marrow fails to properly make blood cells. It is usually due to an autoimmune disorder. It may be caused by medical conditions such as pregnancy. Other causes are the destruction of bone marrow by factors outside of your body, such as exposure to chemical agents, X-rays, and chemotherapy among others.

  • Sickle Cell Disease: It is a hereditary disease in which red blood cells form an abnormal sickle or crescent shape. The fragile, sickle-shaped cells deliver less oxygen to the body's tissues & can break into pieces that can interrupt healthy blood flow. Sickle cell anemia is inherited from both parents. If you inherit the sickle cell gene from only one parent, you will have sickle cell trait. Sickle cell disease is much more common in people of African and Mediterranean descent.

  • Thalassemia: It is a hereditary disease in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin, which results in excessive destruction of red blood cells. There are two main types of thalassemia: Alpha thalassemias occur most commonly in persons from southeast Asia, the Middle East, China, and in those of African descent. Beta thalassemias occur in persons of Mediterranean origin, and to a lesser extent, Chinese, other Asians, and African Americans.

  • Thalassemia Sickle Cell Anemia

    Quantitative Qualitative

    Greeks, Italians, Palestinians Arab and African

    Few globins are synthesized Red Blood Cell is deformed -> it breaks down

    Death by Heart Failure Death by organ failure as well as infections.

  • Thank you