General Features of English Consonants - Place and Manner of Articulation 2

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    ENGLISHENGLISH

    CONSONANTSCONSONANTS

    GeneralGeneral featuresfeatures

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    GeneralGeneralcharacteristicscharacteristicstotobebeconsideredconsideredinin

    thetheproductionproductionofofallallEnglishEnglishconsonantsconsonants::

    11.. SourceSource ofofairair streamstream ((pulmonicpulmonic))

    2.2. AirAir streamstream forcedforced outwardsoutwards ((egressiveegressive)) ororsuckedsucked inwardsinwards ((ingressiveingressive as a variantas a variantof its egressive equivalentof its egressive equivalent

    extralinguistically when expressingextralinguistically when expressingsurprise or pain)surprise or pain)

    33.. VoicingVoicing

    44.. StateState ofofairair passagepassage ((mannermanner ofofarticulationarticulation))

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    5. Place5. Place ofofarticulationarticulation

    66.. DegreeDegree ofofbreathbreath andand muscularmuscular efforteffort involvedinvolved ininarticulationarticulation ((fortisfortis//lenislenis))

    7.7. NoiseNoise componentcomponent ((obstruentsobstruents:: plosivesplosives,,

    fricativesfricatives,, affricatesaffricates;; sonorantssonorants:: nasalsnasals,,vowelsvowels,, approximantsapproximants/w/, /j/, /r/, /l/)/w/, /j/, /r/, /l/)

    88.. PositionPosition ofofthethe softsoft palatepalate ((loweredlowered//raisedraised))

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    Other consonantsOther consonantsAffricates (a combination of stop +Affricates (a combination of stop +

    fricative):fricative):// /voiceless post/voiceless post--alveolar affricatealveolar affricate

    // / voiced post/ voiced post--alveolar affricatealveolar affricate Approximant (articulators approach eachApproximant (articulators approach each

    other but do not touch): /other but do not touch): /

    w/ /r/ /j/w/ /r/ /j/

    Lateral (also called lateral approximant; airLateral (also called lateral approximant; air

    flows over sides of tongue): /flows over sides of tongue): /l/l/

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    Summary of manners of articulationSummary of manners of articulation

    Plosive / Stop p b t d k gPlosive / Stop p b t d k g

    Fricative f vFricative f v s z s z hh

    Affricate (stop + fricative)Affricate (stop + fricative) Nasal m nNasal m n

    Approximants w r jApproximants w r j

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    Examples of Classifying ConsonantsExamples of Classifying Consonants

    //rr/ as in/ as in ssinging is a:is a:

    -- pulmonicpulmonic,, egressiveegressive, alveolar,, alveolar,voiceless,voiceless, fortisfortis, oral, fricative,, oral, fricative,

    obstruentobstruent consonantconsonant..MM.. as in goas in gongng is a :is a :

    -- pulmonicpulmonic,, egressiveegressive, velar, voiced,, velar, voiced,

    lenis, nasal, sonorant consonantlenis, nasal, sonorant consonant

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    BIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHY CRUTTENDEN, ALAN.CRUTTENDEN, ALAN. GimsonGimsons Pronunciation ofs Pronunciation of

    EnglishEnglish. 5th Ed. London: Arnold, 1994.. 5th Ed. London: Arnold, 1994.

    FINCH, D. &FINCH, D. &HHctorctor ORTIZ LIRA,ORTIZ LIRA,A Course inA Course inEnglish Phonetics for Spanish SpeakersEnglish Phonetics for Spanish Speakers, London:, London:

    Heinemann, 1982.Heinemann, 1982.

    GIEGERICH, Heinz,GIEGERICH, Heinz, English PhonologyEnglish Phonology,,Cambridge, 1995.Cambridge, 1995.

    ROACH, Peter,ROACH, Peter, English Phonetics and PhonologyEnglish Phonetics and Phonology,,Cambridge: CUP, 1991.Cambridge: CUP, 1991.