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TREATMENT OF SYNTHETICALLY PREPARED WATER BY ELECTROCOAGULATION
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements For the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology (Chemical Engineering) Submitted By- RISHAB KANWARANKIT GOYALRUPALI SINGHALOK KUMAR
TABLE OF CONTENTMaterials and MethodsCharacterstics Electro-coagulationTreatment MethodsMaterial and Methods65432Objective1ParametersResultsConclusion78
EXISTING WATER TREATMENT METHODSChemical systems- Dependence on Chemicals- Generate more dangerous side reactions- Large risk during execution
Biological Systems / Bacteria- Requires extensive land- Requires more time (not effective)- Media should be in accordance with the characteristics of bacteria.
Physical System- Specific and CharacteristicallyELECTRO-COAGULATION Electrocoagulation (EC), also known as short wave electrolysis, is a technique used for wastewater treatment, industrial process water, and hospital wastewater etc.Electricity-based electrocoagulation technology is used to remove contaminants that are less efficient at filtering, microbiology or processing system with chemicals, such as oil emulsion, hydrocarbons from petroleum, suspended solids, and heavy metals without the use of chemicals.How is waste water generated?
Communities generate waste water from residental and non residental sources
RESIDENTAL WASTE WATERblack water waste water from toiletsGray water water from sources except toilet NON RESIDENTIAL WASTE WATERNon-residential wastewater in small communities is generated by such diverse sources as offices, businesses, department stores, restaurants, schools, hospitals, farms, manufacturers, and other commercial, industrial, and institutional entities
What is in waste water? Waste water is mostly water by weight. Other material make up only small portion of waste waterOrganisms- bacteria, protozoaPathogens- viruses, parasites, and bacteriaOrganic matter- proteins, carbohydrates or fatsOil and grease- fatty organic materials from animals vegetables and petroleumInorganic- minerals, metals and compoundsNutrients- nitrogen and phosphorus Solid- settleable, suspended and dissolvedgases- methane, hydrogen sulphite, ammonia etcCOMPARATION OF EC WITH CONVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
CRITERIAMECHANICAL FILTRATIONBIOREMEDIATIONCHEMICALELECTROCOAGULATIONRESULTNOT EFFECTIVENOT EFFECTIVEMODERATELY EFFECTIVEVERY EFFECTIVEINVESTMENTMODERATELY EFFECTIVEMODERATELY EFFECTIVENOT EFFECTIVEVERY EFFECTIVEEASE OF OPERATIONALNOT EFFECTIVEMODERATELY EFFECTIVENOT EFFECTIVEVERY EFFECTIVEEASE OF MAINTENANCENOT EFFECTIVEMODERATELY EFFECTIVENOT EFFECTIVEVERY EFFECTIVEOILREMOVALMODERATELY EFFECTIVEMODERATELY EFFECTIVEVERY EFFECTIVEVERY EFFECTIVETSSREMOVALMODERATELY EFFECTIVENOT EFFECTIVEVERY EFFECTIVEVERY EFFECTIVEMETALREMOVALNOT EFFECTIVENOT EFFECTIVEMODERATELY EFFECTIVEVERY EFFECTIVEMATERIAL AND METHODS
Reactor (16cm 12cm 7cm )Electrodes (7.5cm 0.03cm 3.5cm. )Opening between electrodes (3cm )Effective Volume in Reactor (750 ml)Effective Electrode Area (52.5 cm2)Electrode Type (Aluminum) DYE USED Methylene blueMolecular Weight - 319.85222 g/molMolecular Formula- C16H18ClN3SColour- Sol have a deep blue colour Odour- Slight odourMax wavelength- 665nmSolubility- In water, 43,600 mg/L at 25 deg C.
A brief description of process
Generally, three main processes occur serially during electro-coagulation: (a) electrolytic reactions at electrode surfaces, (b) formation of coagulants in aqueous phase, (c) adsorption of soluble or colloidal pollutants on coagulants, and removal by sedimentation or floatation. The inherent complexities of the above processes, and also the presence of secondary processes, makes electro-coagulation quite complex in nature.COMPLETE SETUP
EC PROCESSAl3+e >Al3+OH-Al(OH)3OH-H2AnodaCatodePolutant+-PARAMETERS1 pH2 Initial dye concentration3 Effect of electrolyte concentrationEffect of electrolysis timeElectrode typeCurrent density
Effect of pH, current density = 4.5 Amp, NaOH= 2 wt.%, dye conc. = 50mg/L Effect of electrolyte conc. , current density = 4.5Amp ,dye conc. = 50mg/L
Effect of initial dye conc. , current density = 4.5Amp, NaOH= 2 wt.%.
Effect of electrolysis time, current density = 4Amp, NaOH= 2 wt.%, dye conc. = 50mg/L CONCLUSION The enhancement of EC of dye solution (Methylene Blue) by means of application of electromagnetic field was studied and the following conclusions were obtained:
EC was affected by pH, the electrolyte concentration, initial dye concentration and time of electrolysis. The dye was effectively removed (80%) after 20 min. The optimum conditions for the removal of MB dye with an initial concentration of 50 mg/L are: 20 min electrolysis time, current density of 4Amp. The optimum electrolyte concentration was found to be 2 wt.% The optimum pH is 8. REFRENCESMollah, M.Y.A., Schennach, R., Parga, J.R. and Cocke, D.L. (2001).Electrocoagulation (EC) - science and applications, Journal of HazardousMaterials, (B84), 2941. Mollah, M.Y.A., Morkovsky, P., Gomes, J.A.G., Kesmez, M., Parga, J. and Cocke,D.L. (2004). Fundamentals, present and future perspectives of electrocoagulation,Journal of Hazardous Materials, (B114), 199210. Ogutveren, U.B., Goenen, N., Koparal, S., 1992. Removal of dye stuffs from waste water by Electrocoagulation. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A A27, 12371247 Woytowich, D.L., Dalrymple, C.W., Gilmore, F.W., Britton,M.G., 1993. Electrocoagulation (CURE) treatment of water containing dyes. Mar. Technol.Soc. J. 27, 6267. Alinsafi, A., Khemis, M., Pons, M.N., Leclerc, J.P., Yaacoubi, A., Benhammou, A. and Nejmeddine, A. (2005). Electrocoagulation of textile dyes and textile wastewater, Journal of Chemical Engineering, (44), 461-470.
CONTD.Holt, P.K., Barton, G.W., Mitchell, C.A., 2001. The role of current in determining pollutant removal in a batch electrocoagulation reactor. In: 6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering Conference Media CD, Melbourne, Australia.Holt, P.K., Barton, G.W., Mitchell, C.A., 2001. The role of current in determining pollutant removal in a batch electrocoagulation reactor. In: 6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering Conference Media CD, Melbourne, Australia.Khanittha Charoenlarp and Wichan Choyphan,2009, Reuse of dye wastewater through colour removal with electrocoagulation process, Thailand, August 2009. Bayramoglu, M., Eyvaz. M. and Kobya, M. (2007). Treatment of the Textile Wastewater by Electrocoagulation: economicical evaluation. Journal of Chemical Engineering, (128), 155-161. Holt, P.K., Barton, G.W. and Mitchell, C.A. (2005). The Future Foe: Electrocoagulation as a localized water treatment technology. Chemosphere, (59),355-367.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt is my great pleasure to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. SACHIN BANSAL for this deep interest, profile inspiration and invaluable guidance during the entire project without which we are not able to complete this project. I am also thankful to Mr. RAJEEV SHARMA, Dr. PANKAJ KUMAR PANDEY & Mrs. SHIKHA SINGH MITTAL for their co-operation and imparting their experience to me in this project.