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  • EUR 23837 EN-

    External costs of Transportation Case study: maritime transport

    Authors : A. Miola, V. Paccagnan, I., Mannino, A. Massarutto, A. Perujo,M. Turvani

  • The mission of the JRC-IES is to provide scientific-technical support to the European Unions policies for the protection and sustainable development of the European and global environment. European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Environment and Sustainability Contact information Address: Via E. Fermi I-21020 Ispra (VA) Italy E-mail: apollonia.miola@jrc.ec.europa.eu Tel.: +390332786729 Fax: +390332785236 http://ies.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ http://www.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ Legal Notice Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of this publication.

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    A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server http://europa.eu/ JRC 51275 EUR 23837 EN ISBN 978-92-79-12534-8 ISSN 1018-5593 DOI 10.2788/18349 Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities European Communities, 2009 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged Printed in Italy

  • Summary This report aims at proposing a methodological approach to estimate the external costs of

    maritime transport. In order to do so, It is organised into two sections: (i)identification of all environmental impacts of maritime transport (at sea and in ports) and a detailed analysis for

    those already studied in previous researches in literature; (ii)Estimation of identified

    environmental impacts focusing on those related to air pollutants.

    In the first paragraph we review external costs of transportation. Then, a description of maritime

    transportation activities (par. 2) and vessels (par.3) is provided. This will contribute to clarify the

    sources of environmental impacts. The central part of this report will be devoted to a detailed

    analysis of all environmental impacts listed above. The ultimate objective is to highlight the gaps

    that have to be filled in future research works. All the environmental effects entailed by maritime

    activities (both in port and at sea) are analysed (par. 4). The following environmental impacts of

    maritime transport have been considered: emissions to air and water, soil and sediment

    contamination, erosion, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, and waste generation. In

    order to emphasise the complexity and uncertainty about the analysis of environmental impacts

    entailed by maritime transport, a review of research findings is provided (par. 5) and suggest

    research directions (par. 6). Next, we make a step forward and discuss the methodological

    aspects related to the economic valuation of these impacts (par. 7), so as to derive a monetary

    indicator able to summarise them. In particular, we review the economic literature regarding the

    valuation of the several environmental impacts discussed previously (par. 8 and 9), to sketch

    the state of the art. This review will provide a description of proposed methods for measuring

    each external cost. Then, we focus on impacts on air (par. 10). The strengths and limitations of

    existing approaches are described, by proposing at the same a methodological approach to

    estimate maritime pollution activities (par. 11). The proposed approach is tested through a case

    study, by estimating the external costs of a type of maritime activities in Venice (par. 12). The

    idea is to determine the relevant parameters that should be taken into account in the definition

    of an analytical approach, to signal research gaps so as to pave the way to future research

    activities. This will make possible to propose a methodology to be developed in future research

    for maritime transport and to test through a case study what are the main steps of such

    analysis. The last part of the report will emphasise future research directions.

  • 4

    Table of Contents

    1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 4 2. External costs of transportation ............................................................................ 8 3. Description of maritime transportation activities ............................................... 13 4. Description of Vessels ........................................................................................ 17

    Ship Type................................................................................................................ 17 Type of Fuel and Engine ........................................................................................ 18 Size ......................................................................................................................... 19

    5. The environmental impacts of maritime transport activities .............................. 22 Impacts on Air ........................................................................................................ 25 Impacts on Water.................................................................................................... 28 Impacts on Soil ....................................................................................................... 30 Impacts on Ecosystems........................................................................................... 31 Other Impacts related to Waste Production............................................................ 33

    6. Estimated environmental impacts of maritime transport.................................... 34 Estimated Impacts on Air ....................................................................................... 35 Estimated Impacts on Water................................................................................... 48 Estimated Impacts on Soil ...................................................................................... 48 Estimated Impacts on Ecosystem ........................................................................... 49 Estimated Impacts on Waste................................................................................... 49

    7. Research directions on the quantification of maritime transport impacts .......... 50 8. Methodological issues concerning the economic valuation of environmental impacts........................................................................................................................ 51 9. The economic valuation of impacts on water..................................................... 52

    Water pollution ....................................................................................................... 52 Threats to biodiversity: ballast water and use of antifouling paints ....................... 54

    10. The economic valuation of impacts on soil .................................................... 56 Erosion.................................................................................................................... 56 Land use and landscape .......................................................................................... 57

    11. The economic valuation of impacts on air ..................................................... 58 Pollution ................................................................................................................. 58 Climate change ....................................................................................................... 61

    12. The estimation of external costs of maritime transport in the US experience 61 13. A methodological proposal to monetise the effects of air emissions of maritime transportation .............................................................................................. 66

    Estimation of ships emissions and their contribution to pollutant concentration... 67 Estimation of receptors exposure and determination of impacts .......................... 68 Monetisation of the impacts of maritime transportation ........................................ 71 Sensitivity analysis and Uncertainty....................................................................... 74

    14. Testing through the Venice case study........................................................... 77 Description of the case study.................................................................................. 77 Application of the proposed methodology to the Venice case study ..................... 80 Results .................................................................................................................... 88

    15. Indications for future research on estimation and monetisation of impacts ... 93 16. References ...................................................................................................... 96 Annex 1 - Yield response functions of several crops to ozone ................................ 102

  • 5

    List of Table TABLE 1 SPECIFICATION OF COST COMPONENTS ACCORDING TO TRANSPORT MODES 9

    TABLE 2 DEGREE OF INTERNALISATION PER COST COMPONENT AND MODE OF TRANSPOR 10

    TABLE 3 SHIP TYPE CLASS ................................................................................................ 18 TABLE 4 - FUEL CLASSIFICATION......................................................................................... 19 TABLE 5 -