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Presentation Title

English Articulation Committee MeetingMay 6, 2016

Amanda Coolidge, Senior Manager Open Education

Opening Slide of presentation introducing Open Textbook Project1

Open Education encompasses resources, tools and practices that are free of legal, financial and technical barriers and can be fully used, shared and adapted in the digital environment.What is Open Education?- SPARC, http://sparcopen.org/open-education/Unless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under CC-BY. 4.0 International. Feel free to use, modify or distribute any or all of this presentation with attribution.


BC Open Textbook Project

40 free & open textbooks for highest enrolled 1st & 2nd year post-secondary subjects in BC2013 20 for skills & training

First province in Canada2013 AB & SASK MOU

$1 million2013 - $1 million

Visual notes of John Yap announcement, Giulia Forsythe Used under CC-SA license


The BC Open Textbook Project is the Ministry of Advanced Educations response to a number of the issues of student debt and restricted access. The Open Textbook project was first announced in 2012 at the Open Education Conference in Vancouver, by the then minister of advanced education, John Yap. He announced that the BC Provincial Government would provide the funding of $1 million in the creation of 40 open textbooks for the highest enrolled post-secondary subject areas in BC. In 2013 the government announced that another $1 million would be provided to develop 20 open textbooks for skills and training, in alignment with the BC Jobs Plan.


Open Education is part of an Open Ecosystem

Unless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under CC-BY. 4.0 International. Feel free to use, modify or distribute any or all of this presentation with attribution.

The Open Ecosystem by Clobridge Consulting is licensed under a CC BY 4.0 License.

open.bccampus.caThis slides helps the audience understand that open education is just one part of the open ecosytem. The facilitator should go over the other types of open that are also a part of that ecosystem.

Why are we doing this project?

To increase access to higher education by reducing student costs To give faculty more control over their instructional resources To improve learning outcomes for students

Annie Lennox campaigns with Oxfam at the AIDS Conference by Oxfam used under CC-BY-NC-ND license


There are three main reasons that propel BCcampuss drive for open education and in particular in the open textbook project. To increase access to higher education by reducing students, to give faculty more control over their instructional resources, and to improve learning outcomes for students. 5

Textbook Costs vs Student SuccessSource: 2012 student survey by Florida Virtual CampusSlide: CC-BY Cable Green, Creative Commons via http://www.project-kaleidoscope.org (modified)/Textbook Costs vs Student Success

64% do not purchase books at some point due to book cost 49% take fewer courses due to book cost 31% choose not to register for a course due to book cost23% regularly go without textbooks due to book cost27% have dropped a course due to book cost21% have withdrawn from a course due to book costUnless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under CC-BY. 4.0 International. Feel free to use, modify or distribute any or all of this presentation with attribution.

open.bccampus.caThe 2012 Florida Student Textbook Survey takes this data one step further and illustrates how students behave when faced with high textbook costs. In this survey, 54 % spent more than $300 on textbooks during the Spring 2012 term and 19% spent over $500. More than half (64%) reported not having purchased the required textbook because of the high cost, and Almost one-fourth reported doing without frequently (23%). 45% reported not registering for a course49% took fewer courses27% dropped a course,21% withdrew from a course.


How much students in Canada say they spend on textbooks per termSource: Data on Textbook Costs, Higher Education Strategy Associates, 2015.Unless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under CC-BY. 4.0 International. Feel free to use, modify or distribute any or all of this presentation with attribution.

open.bccampus.caIn the 2015 Data on Textbook Costs paper, Alex reports that in 2012, nearly 85% of the 1350 Canadian students polled stated spending between less than $200 to over $800 on textbooks per term.Whats interesting here is not what they paid, but how they chose to save money. After all, students have a number of potential strategies to avoid purchasing textbooks: they can sign them out of the library, they can buy them used, they can share with friends, and in some cases find pirated electronic copies on the internet. To observe how students wereactually behaving, we asked them not just how much money they spent, but also: i) whether they actually bought all the required books and materials; andif not,ii) how much they would have spent if they actuallyhad bought all the books.


The Open Textbook Project

The Project

Dont reinvent it by Andrea Hernandez released under CC-BY-NC-SA and based on Wheel by Pauline Mak released under CC-BY license


At the start of the project in 2012, BCcampus did an inventory of the highest enrolled subject areas at BC post-secondary institutions. Many established open education projects had already created and adapted open educational resources and open textbooks in some of these areas, so rather than start from scratch by creating new textbooks BCcampus decided to adopt open textbooks that already existed and had a proven track record of high quality and widely adopted materials.9

Where do they come from?


Some of the adoptions came from OpenStax College out of Rice University, OER Commons, the Open Textbook Library out of Minnesota, and Merlot repositories.10

Faculty Reviews

291/365 by thebarrowboy used under a CC-BY


BCcampus then posted these open textbooks in their collection and began to solicit reviews from BC faculty. Faculty were to review a books comprehensiveness, content accuracy, relevance, clarity, consistency and modularity. Each review was then posted with the open textbook in the collection. As you can see these reviews are open because they are posted along with the reviewers name and which institution he or she is affiliated with. Also each review is released under a CC-BY-ND license. ND (non-derivative) was added as a condition to the Creative Commons license to ensure the reviews could not be changed.11

Reviews > Adaptations

My Adventures Adapting a Chemistry Textbook291/365 by thebarrowboy used under a CC-BY


From the reviews BCcampus then put out a call for proposals for faculty to adapt the textbook based on the reviews. They wanted to ensure that whatever was missing or lacking from a textbook in the collection that it was then adapted to meet the needs of BC Faculty. In some cases the reviews indicated that the books were too US centric, or that some of the chapters were not relevant for the BC context. Being able to adapt a textbook to meet specific learning outcomes, that is the power of working in the Open. The faculty had the opportunity to change the textbook. Here is one example of an adaptation- Professor Jessie Key at VIU adapted the Introductory Chemistry book based on the reviews submitted.12

Creative Commons logo by Creative Commons used under a CC-BY 3.0 LicenseCC license image from Copyright in Education & Internet in South African Law used under CC-BY 2.5 South Africa license


Because of the Creative Commons license associated with open textbooks, 13

Faculty have full legal right to customize & contextualize open textbooks to fit their pedagogical needs


Faculty have the full legal right to customize and contextualize open textbooks to fit their pedagogical needs. This then makes the resources pedagogically stronger14

open = free + permissions


So what does it mean for a resource to be open, it does mean that it is free, but it also means it has certain permissions attributed to that resource that allow


The 5Rs

One to retain (make and own a copy, Reuse (use in a wide range of ways)Revise (adapt, modify, and improve)Remix (combine two or more)Redistribute (share with others)16

Publish Many

Write Once


All of the BC open textbooks are created using the online platform called Pressbooks, which is based on the Wordpress platform. Pressbooks allows the books to be written in one format and then published in a variety of outputs such as EPUB, PDF, MOBI, XML, etc.17

Choices for students (and for adapters)

Old Leather books, by Wyoming_Jackrabbit used under a CC-BY-NC-SA


The benefit of multiple formats is that it means that students can choose the platform that they want to use when reading the book. It also means that when faculty adapt the textbook they have a number of format options available to make those edits. 18

Day 1 access to resources


Another benefit of open textbooks is access to the resource on Day 1. 19

My textbook isback-orderedin the mailout of stockthe wrong editionon hold until my student loan arrivesnot needed until I decide I want this courseHow often do students start the term without the resources they need?