Digital Rights Management

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Transcript of Digital Rights Management

  • 1. Digital Rights ManagementThe enabler of information society Leonardo Chiariglione CEDEO.net Bellaterra, ES, 2007/05/16

2. The business of intermediation

  • In the physical world there are people who
    • Own things
    • Look for those things
    • Act as matchmakers
      • Advertisers, Resellers, ...
  • Matchmakers are important when they know
    • What things people want
    • Who has the things people want
  • Matchmakers are less important when
    • Things are of general use
    • Many offer the same things
  • The delivery of solid things is important
    • Haulers,

3. The old business of content

  • Content is far from physical, but
    • It cannot be transmitted from mind to mind
    • If it could we would still like to know which mind has something interesting :-(
  • Content can be distributed by physical carriers
    • As a physical object it is no different from other things
    • Publisher can easily replicate it
    • End user typically requires a special device
  • Content can be distributedby electrical carriers
    • Content distribution still requires an infrastructure
    • End user has the means to replicate content
    • Its use typically requires a proper device

4. The new business of content

  • Digitally represented content
    • Is abundant and liquid
    • Value chains are still needed to move content from creator to end user
    • Importance of delivery decreases
  • Abundance and liquidity are threats to current value chains players
    • Make digital content as scarce and solid as analogue content by acting on
      • Content (Digital Rights Management)
      • Distribution (Proprietary networks)
    • You have better talk to those who foot the bill

5. Wrong music rights/1

  • When the king of England wants to see a show, they bring the show to the castle and he hears it alone in his private theater. If you are a king, why dont you exercise your kingly privilege and have a show of your own in your own house.
    • From an ad for the Edisons phonograph, 1906
  • For decades millions of kings have exercised their kingly privilege
    • Buy music and play it anywhere
    • Record music from live broadcasts
    • Copy their music to any device

6. Wrong music rights/2

  • 10 years ago kings have become emperors
    • Find any content they want
    • Organise/play/copy/share music
  • Some want emperors to become sanculottes
    • Digital content costs as much as physical content
    • Play content on dedicated players
    • The new lettres de cachet: break the lock and go to jail
  • We are not in 1789 and not in Paris but there has been a revolution...
  • The future of the record industry hangs on a thread...

7. The wobbling movie industry/1

  • The end user as a pawn
    • If you want to see my movies go to the theatre
  • The end user as a duke
    • Watch the movie on show in your castle
  • The end user as a count
    • Record the movie but no guarantee that you can share it
  • The end user as a king
    • The movie of you choice in your castle
    • With pestering mosquitoes (region codes)
  • The end user as an emperor
    • All the movies anytime anywhere on any device

8. The wobbling movie industry/2

  • Some want emperors to become sanculottes
    • Digital content costs as much as physical content
    • You can play it only on dedicated players
    • The new lettres de cachet: break the lock and go to jail
  • Trailblazers have a hard time
  • Smart followers may avoid the pitfalls...
    • The people who handle strategy have to get together to talk about this (interoperability), not just the same technical people (From a speech by Dan Glickman, MPAA President)

9. Learning from the mistakes of others

  • Golden rule #1: Respect your customer if you want to have your property respected
    • Still a value chain player needs the means to manage his rights
    • Beware: the technology must be pervasive and mostly invisible
  • Golden rule #2: Give your customer what he wants
    • All the nice features of digital content abundance and liquidity are still there
    • Universal content format and network access

10. Talking of standards MPEG for affordable content liquidity More in the pipeline MPEG-E Multimedia Middleware MPEG-D part 1

  • Spatial Audio

MPEG-B/C part 4

  • Reconfigurable Video Coding

More media coding MPEG-A Multimedia Application Formats MPEG-21 Multimedia Framework MPEG-7 MetadataMPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 Media coding 11. MPEG changes the media landscape (only uses > 100 M reported)

  • Video CD players
    • MPEG-1 Systems/Video/Audio Layer 2
  • MP3 players
    • MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3
  • Digital TV set top boxes
    • MPEG-2 Video/Systems and MPEG-1 Audio Layer 2
  • DVD players
    • MPEG-2 Video/Systems
  • Photo cameras
    • MPEG-4 Visual
  • Mobile handsets
    • MPEG-4 Visual/AVC, AAC/HE-AAC, File Format)
  • Compressed movie players
    • MPEG-4 Visual + MP3

12. Digital media is now a maturing market (but very vital)

  • Todays MPEG portfolio of standards covers most aspects of digital media
    • Industry still needs the traditional MPEG products (video and audio compression)
  • Consumers (and not just them) crave for interoperability
  • But interoperability needs have moved up one level
    • From single technologies to assemblies of technologies
  • MPEG is providing solutions in that space

13. An example of a MAF standardMedia Streaming

  • Many applications need streaming of AV content
    • In many of them the content is governed
  • MPEG standards have contributed to bring the industry to its current level of development
    • Hundreds of million devices deployed
  • So far there was no complete standard forcontent governance
    • This is what the MS MAF standard is about
  • MS MAF to lead the video broadcasting/streaming industry to its next level of development

14. An MS MAF reference scheme Media Streaming Player Media Streaming Player Domain Management Device IPMP Tool Provider Device Media Streaming Player License Provider Device Content Provider Device 15. MS MAF provideswhat everybody (should) demand A healthy competing market Regulators Unload the cost of devices from account books Service providers A free and buoyant device market Manufacturers Unfettered access to any content item End users Unfettered access to any end user Creators 16. MS MAF is an example of a DRM standard

  • The NIST definition of Digital Rights Management (DRM):
    • A system of Information Technology components and services along with corresponding law, policies and business models which strive to distribute and control Intellectual Property and its rights
  • With DRM rights holders can manage (and possibly protect) the flow and use of their content by setting appropriate limits
  • DRM limits communication, but it is still a communication system
  • To be successful DRM needs the same old recipe: standards

17. Can we have a DRM standard? Creator Enduser 18. A small problem from a big one

  • A DRM standard should enable any Value-Chain User (End-User included) to execute value-chain Function