Digital Photography DeCal EECS98/198 Nathan Yan Sean Goebel.
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Digital Photography DeCal EECS98/198 Nathan Yan Sean Goebel Slide 2 Digital Photography DeCal important notes! 1. Administrivia at the end of lecture 2. I tend to talk fast sorry! >__< 3. I tend to mumble and stutter sorry! >__< 4. No such thing as a dumb question 5. Website is http://www.photodecal.orghttp://www.photodecal.org -lectures, assignments, news! Slide 3 All cameras, film or digital, work the same: Photons are projected onto a photo-sensitive plane which records the light information How it works Slide 4 By confining light to only photons which pass through a certain point, we begin to resolve detail Slide 5 History of Camera Development Many pinhole-type cameras dating back to the 11 th century Joseph Nipce recorded the first photograph in 1826, using a photo-sensitive silver/chalk mixture (8 hour exposure) Development of recording mediums more responsive to light: wet plates, dry plates George Eastman introduces photographic film in 1885, and debuts the Kodak camera in 1888 a cheap and easy to operate camera that began to popularize cameras Oskar Barnack developed the Leica camera in 1925, which popularized 35mm film standard Ihagee introduced the first single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, Exakta, in 1933, allowing photographers to view image through the lens Auto-focus developed in the Konica C35AF in 1977 Slide 6 History of Digital Camera Development Began with charged couple device (CCD) sensors that recorded to analog media Steve Sasson produced the first such camera for Kodak in 1975 Solid state CCD that recorded output onto cassette tape Resolution: 10,000 pixels, or 0.01 megapixels First practical use in 1984, for journalism Canon RC-701 recorded images onto "video floppies" During 1984 Olympics images could be transmitted via telephone lines, and image quality (780x585, 0.4MP) was acceptable for newsprint JPEG image compression standard introduced in 1988 First true digital camera: Fuji DS-1P debuted in 1988, recording a digitized image file to onboard memory First camera with live image feed to LCD: Casio QV-10 in 1995 First "professional" digital SLR camera natively designed: 2.74MP Nikon D1 in 1999 First affordable "consumer" digital SLR: 6MP Canon Digital Rebel 300D in 2003 - $1000 Slide 7 Input: Light photons Output: Electrical signals Slide 8 Si Photowell Slide 9 Many electrons Voltage: High Implication: Many photons detected, bright exposure Result: bright image Few electrons Voltage: Low Implication: Few photons detected, dark exposure Result: dark image Max electrons Voltage: Max Implication: Max photons detected, brightest exposure Result: White image No electrons Voltage: Zero Implication: No photons detected, darkest exposure Result: Black image Slide 10 Slide 11 Bigger aperture = more light! Aperture Slide 12 Longer shutter speed (exposure time) = more light collected! Shutter speed Slide 13 Electrical signal Accumulated charge Amplifier Amplified electrical signal ISO is a sensitivity higher ISO means more signal (brightness) for the input (light) you actually get ISO sensitivity Slide 14 Use software to multiply the pixel values 2x 4x 8x 16x Digital Multiplication Slide 15 Si 101010100100 Photons Photoelectrons Electrical signal Accumulated charge Digital representation of electrical signal Image file Amplifier Amplified electrical signal Slide 16 Exposure "Stops" StopsExposureShutter speedApertureISO sensitivity -41/16x1/1600sf/22ISO50 -31/8x1/800sf/16ISO100 -21/4x1/400sf/11ISO200 1/2x1/200sf/8.0ISO400 01x1/100sf/5.6ISO800 +12x1/50sf/4.0ISO1600 +24x1/25sf/2.8ISO3200 +38x1/12sf/2.0ISO6400 +416x1/6sf/1.4ISO12800