Existentialism Devine Goebel Wright

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Transcript of Existentialism Devine Goebel Wright

  • 1. EXISTENTIALISM
    Maddy Devine
    Matt Goebel
    Aaron Wright

2. Definition of Existentialism
Existentialism is a philosophical outlook that stresses the importance of free will, freedom of choice, and personal responsibility.
Decisions & Consequences
Rationality
Personal responsibility/discipline
Society and religion
Worldly desire
3. Kierkegaards Biography
Born May 5, 1813
Raised in town of Copenhagen
Rarely left town, only traveled abroad 5 times
Attended theatre, walked streets to chat, carriage jaunts to countryside
Attended Copenhagen University
Studied philosophy and theology
4. Sren Kierkegaard
5. Kierkegaards Biography
His life significantly relevant to his work
His critique of Hegelianism abstracted from lives of its proponents
How life and work of a philosopher contradicted
Greek notion of judging philosophers
Writers work is important, but judgment should be based on their life
His writings double as means of working through events in his life
Particularly to his mother, father, and fiance
Similar to Socrates: His whole life was personal preoccupation with himself, and then Governance comes and adds world-historical significance to it.
Kierkegaard believed personal life was transfigured by divine Governance into universal significance
6. Sren Kierkegaard
7. Kierkegaards Biography
Influence from Mother
Indirect and hidden in work, never actually mentioned
Placed much emphasis on indirect communication
Writings were in his mother-tongue (Danish)
Significant due to Latin being the language of science and scholarship
Had to petition to the king to write one of his philosophical works in Danish
He defied the used languages (Latin and German) in order to connect with his mother through use of Danish language
8. Kierkegaards Biography
Influence from Father
Often noted in Kierkegaards works
Kierkegaard inherited trait of melancholy and sense of guilt and anxiety
Had fathers emphasis on Christian faith and talents for philosophical argument and imagination
Fathers wealth allowed Kierkegaard to be a free-lance writer
Father felt guilt/punishment from God, believed all of his 7 sons would die before the age of 34
5 of 7 sons did die before 34
Kierkegaard astonished to survive and perhaps may explain why he wrote so much up to his 34th birthday
9. Sren Kierkegaard
10. Kierkegaards Biography
Influence from fiance Regine Olsen
Theme of young man and woman being poeticized recurs in Kierkegaards works
Theme of sacrificing world happiness for higher purpose
Engagement was broken: Kierkegaard devotes himself to his religious purpose
Establishes outsider status (unmarried)
No longer held personal relationships, objectified them as ideal creatures
Created patriarchal values on church and father
11. Sren Kierkegaard
12. Who did Kierkegaard base his thoughts on?
Father of Existentialism
Writing based on Socrates
Originally specifically focused on flaws of G.W.F. Hegels philosophy
Later stemmed ideas from hatred of Danish National Church
13. Kierkegaards philosophical contributions
Credited with creating existential psychology and therapy through writings
Unlimited free will
Go against whats good for them
Leap of faith
Humans cannot know certain things based on reason
God/religion
Take leap of faith
14. Passage from Kierkegaards work
Because Adam has not understood what was spoken, there is nothing but the ambiguity of anxiety. The infinite possibility of being able that was awakened by the prohibition now draws closer, because this possibility points to a possibility as its sequence. (Kierkegaard, pg. 45)
15. Passage Analysis
Describing Adam in story of Genesis
Understanding difference between good and evil
God told Adam about tree of Good and Evil
Adam realizes he could choose
Kierkegaard describes anxiety and its affect on choice
Anxiety and choice/analogy of cliffs edge
Choice of jumping off cliff is there, even though it is bad for the individual
Anxiety usually stops you from doing this
Your anxiety complex acts as a filter of free will for profitability
16. Modern piece of Writing
Notes from Underground by Fyodor Dostoevsky
Man, whoever he might be, has always and everywhere liked to act as he wants, and not at all as reason and profit dictate; and one can want even against ones own profit, and one sometimes even positively must. Ones own free and voluntary wanting, ones own caprice, however wild, ones own fancy, though chafed sometimes to the point of madnessall this is that most profitable profit (Dostoevsky, pg. 25)
17. Analysis and relation to Kierkegaards philosophy
Passage is element of humans free will
Ability to do anything and everything
Choose between sin and goodness
Adam and his choice
Need to go against greater profit
Capable of individual thoughts and actions
Can be seen in many instances of literature
Both Kierkegaards and Dostoevskys writings
Philosophy of free will makes up center of existentialism
18. Beauvoirs Biography
Simone de Beauvoir was
born on January 9, 1908
in Paris, France.
No God, remained atheist
Institut Adeline Dsir, a
Catholic school for girls.
Her friend Zaza
Philosophy baccalaureate
exam
Jean Paul Sartre
19. Simone de Beauvoir
20. Simone de Beauvoir
21. Beauvoirs Biography
Large role in developing existentialism and feminism during the twentieth century
Beauvoir and Sartre relationship
Sartres ideas involving the idea of human freedom and endless possibilities
An inner life and an outer life
The inner life is our personality and consciousness while the outer life includes our material belongings.
22. Simone de Beauvoir
23. Beauvoirs Works
The Second Sex intertwines the ideas of feminism and
believed that women were seen as something other and completely different than men
women were being repressed
Earlier works, Ethics of Ambiguity
the spirit of seriousness
La Sang des Autres
the major existentialist piece from the French Resistance
Her influences include Descartes, Bergson, Husserl, Heidegger, and Karl Marx.
24. Simone de Beauvoir
25. Passage from Beauvoirs Work
The Second Sex
It has been declared that if she resigns herself to this surrender, it is because physically and morally she has become inferior to boys and incapable of competing with them: forsaking hopeless competition, she entrusts that assurance of her happiness to a member of the superior caste. (Beauvoir, 342)
26. Analysis of Passage
Traditional patriarchal system suppresses free will of women
This passage discusses how from a young age women are seen as inferior and fragile beings
This relates to Beauvoirs philosophy that women are seen as the second sex and nothing like men
27. Modern Passage
Full Frontal Feminism by Jessica Valenti
You are a b*tch. You are a c*nt. You are a sl*t. You are a wh*re. The worst thing you can call a girl is a girl. The worst thing you can call a guy is a girl. Being a woman is the ultimate insult. Now tell me thats not royally [messed] up. (Valenti 5)
28. Analysis and Relation to Beauvoirs Work
Relates to the idea that women are belittled
Being a woman is a major insult
This is engraved at a young age
Young girl referred to in The Second Sex
Both existentialist and feminist
29. Summary
Existentialism is a philosophical outlook that stresses the importance of free will, freedom of choice, and personal responsibility.
Kierkegaard looked at existentialism in regards to religion
Beauvoir looked at existentialism in feminist ways
30. Bibliography
Beauvoir, S. (1949). The Second Sex. Paris, France: Editions Gallimard, 2009.
Cherry, K. (2010). What is existentialism? Retrieved from www.allaboutphilosophy.org/existentialism on May 6, 2010.
Dostoevsky, F. (1865). Notes from Underground. New York, New York: Vintage Books, 1994.
Kierkegaard, S. (1844). The Concept of Anxiety. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980.
McDonald, W. (2009). Sren Kierkegaard. Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from www.plato.stanford.edu/entries/kierkegaard on May 6, 2010
Mussett, S. (2010). Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986). Retrieved from www.iep.edu/beauvoir on May 8, 2010.
Valenti, J. (2007). Full Frontal Feminism. Emeryville, California: Avalon Publishing Group, 2007.