CURRICULUM VITA Walaa I. Eshraim Academic Qualifications 1- Master of Science (M. Sc. in Physics),...
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Walaa I. Eshraim
Academic Qualifications 1- Master of Science (M. Sc. in Physics), the Islamic University of Gaza (IUG), Gaza, Gaza Strip, 2007. 2- Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. in Physics), the Islamic University of Gaza (IUG), Gaza, Gaza Strip, 2003. Scientific Prizes 1- Majorana Prize for the best research published in the Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics in 2008. 2- The Islamic University Prize for the best scientific research in Science Faculty at the Islamic University of Gaza in 2007.
Publications 1- W. I. Eshraim, and N. I. Farahat, Hamilton-Jacobi Approach to the Rlativistic Local Free Field with Linear velocity of Dimension D Hadronic Journal, 29, (2006), 553. 2- W. I. Eshraim, and N. I. Farahat, Quantization of the scalar field coupled minimally to the vector potential Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, 14, (2007), 61. 3- W. I. Eshraim, and N. I. Farahat, Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of the scalar field coupled to two flavours Fermionic through Yukawa couplings , Islamic University Journal, 15, (2007). 4- W. I. Eshraim, and N. I. Farahat, Hamilton-Jacobi treatment of Lagrangian with fermionic and scalar field, Romanian Journal of Physics, 53, (2008). 5- W. I. Eshraim, and N. I. Farahat, Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of a non-abelian Yang-Mills theories, Electronic Journal of theoretical Physics, 17, (2008) 69. 6- W. I. Eshraim, and N. I. Farahat, Path Integral Quantization of The Electromagnetic Field Coupled to A Spinor, Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, under publication. 7- W. I. Eshraim, "Path Integral Quantization of Landau-Ginzburg Theory", Islamic University Journal, under publication.
Conferences Papers 1- Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of the scalar field coupled to two flavours Fermionic through Yukawa couplings. The Second International Conference for Science and Development, Faculty of Science, Gaza, Palestine, March 6-7, 2007. 2- Quantization of The Relativistic Local Free Field With Linear Velocity of Dimension D. The Third International Conference for Science and Development, Faculty of Science, Gaza, Palestine, March 7-8, 2009. 3- On The Lagrangian Formalism of Landau-Ginzburg Theory. The Third International Conference for Science and Development, Faculty of Science, Gaza, Palestine, March 7-8, 2009. Research Regarding Constraint dynamics and Hamiltonian Formulation of Singular System. Application of the theory of partial differential equations, especially in Hamilton-Jacobi theory, and in formulation of system with constraints.
introductionPhysics is the most basic of the sciences. It deals with the behavior and structure of matter. The field of physics is usually divided into classical physics and modern physics.classical physics which includes motion, fluids, heat, sound, light, electricity, and magnetism.modern physics which includes the topics of relativity, atomic structure, condensed matter, nuclear physics, elementary particles, and cosmology and astrophysics.
1.2 The Concept of Matter:In the study of science, the make up of the universe is divided into two categories, matter and energy.While a study of matter often deal with an investigation of atoms and their component particles, we more frequently encounter matter in the aggregate form of minerals, solids, liquids, gases, and the multitude of living things. The best way to gain a concept of matter is to work with it and to describes its various forms. A description is not a definition in the real sense of the word, but it helps to bring an abstract idea down to familiar terms
Everything that has mass and volume is called matter.
All matter, regardless of state, undergoes physical and chemical changes. These changes can be microscopic or macroscopic.
1.3 Properties of Matter: Properties are used to describe matter.
Properties of matter can be divided into physical properties and chemical properties.Properties of matterphysical propertieschemical propertiesHardness, color, melting point and densitysodium and potassium react with water
Properties of matter also can be divided into intensive properties and extensive properties.Properties of matterintensive propertiesextensive propertiessuch as density, color, and boiling pointsuch as mass and volume
Physical and Chemical propertiesPhysical properties are those that we can determine without changing the identity of the substance we are studying.The physical properties of sodium metal is: it is a soft, lustrous, silver-colored metal with a relatively low melting point and low density. For instanceFigure 7.15 shows a chunk of metallic sodium.
These properties, then, must be determined using a process that changes the identity of the substance of interest. To determine, we would have to combine an alkali metal with water and observe what happens.Chemical properties describe the way a substance can change or react to form other substances.For exampleOne chemical property of sodium and potassium is that they can react with water:
The changes undergone by sodium and potassium when they react with water are chemical changes. Matter can also undergo physical changes. One example is the melting of a solid. Physical and Chemical changeschanges of matterPhysicalchangesChemical changesAll changes of state are physical changesChanges of matters chemical identity
1.4 Mass and Weight:A basic property of matter is its mass. The mass of an object is a measure of the quantity of matter is contains. Mass measurement are based on the kilogram mass, which is kept in a special vault by the international Bureau of standards in serves, France Duplicates of this standard are stored in various place a round the world. The mass of an object does not vary with temperature, pressure, or location in space. A 1 Kilogram mass will have this mass on the earth, on the moon, on Mars, or when it is floating in space.
What is mass?Mass is the amount of matter in an object.Mass is constant.Mass is also the measure of inertia.
But how does one determine the mass of an object?
Is a comparison of size with the standard mass sufficient?
Obviously not, since objects may have the same size but not the same concentration of matter. A piece of bress and a piece of gold may have the same size and luster, but they differ in mass. Instead of size, we must turn to another property of matter its reaction to forces.
For the present, we can define a force as something which tends to change the motion of an object either in magnitude or direction. A push or a pull is a force.
Matter responds to a push or a pull by speeding up or slowing down or changing its direction of motion. When equal and opposite forces act on matter, its motion is unchanged. However, other physical effects may results. when you push a bicycle you can sped it up rapidly. The same push on a motorcycle does not produce rapid results. In both cases, the mass of the object being pushed underwent a change in its motion. The motorcycle, which showed the lesser effect, is said to have a larger mass. The property of matter to oppose any alteration of its state of rest or motion is called inertia.
What is inertia?Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion
The more mass the greater the inertia
Inertia shows itself not only when objects are standing still but also when they are moving. The inertia of matter can be used to measure mass. If two objects, both of which are entirely free to move, respond in the same way to a given force by undergoing the same change in their motion, they have equal masses. That is, they contain equal quantities of matter.
Unknown masses can be measured by comparing their periods of vibration with those of objects having known masses. First, several of the known objects are used and their vibration times are plotted as functions of their masses. Then the vibration time of an unknown object is measured and its mass. From such an experiment it may be concluded that mass is the measure of the inertia of an object.
If the mass of an object and its vibration time on an inertia balance were directly proportional, Instead, the relationship is expressed by the following equation:
In which m1 and m2 are two masses (including the mass of the pan in each case) and T1 and T2 are their respective vibration times.
A term that is frequently confused with mass is weight. Weight is a measure of the gravitational force of attraction between an object and the earth. Since the gravitational force varies with the distance between the object and the earth, the value of the weight varies. If one could conceive of a place where there is no gravitational force acting on an object, its weight would be zero but its mass would remain unchanged.
WeightThe measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object.
Weight changes with gravity.
The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N).
Weight formula1 kg = 2.2 poundsWeight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s2) W= m x gWhat is your mass? What is your weight in Newtons?
A unit of force used in physics is the Newton. The Newton and Kilogram are not equivalent units. They are units for measuring different physical quantities. It is correct to say, for example, that a 1.0 kilogram mass weights 9.8 newtons at sea level.
A property of matter that is closely related to mass is mass density. Mass density refers to the amount of matter in a given a mount of space and is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance. Thus, if a substance occupies a space of 15 cm3 and has a mass of 45g, its mass density is 3.0g/cm3. The mathematical equation is
In giving the mass density of a substance, it is important to include the units (kilogram per cubic meter, grams per cubic centimeter, or some other unit of mass per unit of volume) in order that it may be compared with other values of mass densities.
1-5 Classification of Matter Classification of matter by existing StateGasA gas is highly compressible and will assume both the shape and the volume of its container.A solid also is not compressible, and it has a fixed volume and shape of its own. A liquid is not compressible and will assume the shape but not the volume of its container. A plasma is an ionized gas. Plasma, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.plasma
1.5 Conditions of Matter:Most properties of matter are not constant, They vary with the environment. Thus, water freezes when it gets cold enough and boils, when it gets hot enough. In each case, the physical properties of the water have changed. Similarly, the mass density of a gas increases when it is place under pressure and decreases when the pressure is reduced. The environment of matter is referred to as its conditions. Conditions include such quantities as temperature, pressure, concentration, and electric charge.