Culture and emotion

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Culture and emotion. Hofstede’s approach. Power distance Uncertainty avoidance Individualism-collectivism Masculinity-femininity Bond: Based on Chinese data, added Confucian work dynamism (or Long-term orientation). What about levels in different countries ? (www.geert-hofstede.com). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Culture and emotion

Culture and emotion1Hofstedes approachPower distanceUncertainty avoidanceIndividualism-collectivismMasculinity-femininityBond: Based on Chinese data, added Confucian work dynamism (or Long-term orientation)Minkov: ingulgent-restraint

2What about levels in different countries? (www.geert-hofstede.com)3Schwartz world value surveyAt individual level (10 values):Openness to change vs. traditionSelf-enhancements vs. self-transcendencehttp://changingminds.org/explanations/values/schwartz_inventory.htmAt nation level (7 values):Autonomy-embeddednessHierarchy-egalitarianismMastery-harmonyhttp://www.imo-international.de/englisch/html/siebenwerte_en.html

4Schwartz model

5Other approachesSmith et al.Loyalty to organization vs. utilitarianismConservation vs. egalitarianismInglehartSelf-expression vs. survivalRational-legal vs. traditional authorityTight vs. Loose cultures (Gelfand et al., 2011)How does this concept relate to the others?Is this a country-level variable? Why are certain countries high or low?What other effects might this have? 6Culture vs. evolutionAre the approaches contradictory or complementary?What are some limitations of this area of research?

7Cultural differences in Self-conceptSelf-consistency (self-monitoring)What does it mean to be multi-cultural?Self-enhancementApproach/avoidanceAgency and controlDesire to fit inHonor cultureRelationshipsIn vs out groupFriendship differences

8Culture and cognitionCognition (Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, 2001)Analytic vs. holistic thinkingAttention to backgroundCategorizationReasoning stylesAttribution

9Moderators of cognitive differencesSituational salienceDiagnosticity of behavior10Multilevel analyses (Miyamoto, 2013)Distal situational factorsAncient Greek vs. Chinese cultures HistorySettlement/frontiersReligionSocial class

11Proximal leve l situational factorsAnalytic vs. holistic:Parenting practicesNonverbal communicationCultural productsIndependent vs. interdependentTextbooksMagazine adsSocial interactions

12Individual level factorsPriming of cultureIndividual differencesWhy isnt there much difference at the individual level? 13Distal/proximal interactionsPowers effects on cognition Differences in power by culture and effects on cognitionPersonal vs. social power

What are the longitudinal effects of these proximal factors? 14Culture and emotionEmotionBasic emotionsDisplay rulesIntensity of emotionsHappinessIn-group advantage in emotional dialect

15EmotionsWhere do emotions come from and what is their purpose? Appraisal theoryRelevance, congruence, responsibility, control, powerInterpret important event or object, give it meaning, get emotionCritiques of appraisal theorySchachters two-factor theory of emotionMisattribution of arousalMood congruence16Affect infusion model (Forgas)Low infusion: direct access and motivated processingHigh infusion: heuristic and substantiveSimilarities to other dual process: HSM and ELMHow are emotions social?Contagion of emotion vs. norms (bottom up vs. top down)Unconscious emotion (subliminal faces)Moral judgments: trustworthiness and dominance

17Embodiment of emotionNiedenthal et al., 2007What are examples of embodied emotions?What are mirror neurons, and how do they relate to embodied emotion? Why would embodiment of emotion have evolved? 18Disgust (Chapman & Anderson, 2013)What is disgust? Why do we feel disgust (what purpose does it serve)? What makes us feel disgust?Do moral transgressions lead to feelings of disgust?

19Theories of moralityMoral domain theory (Turiel)Moral, societal, psychologicalFive foundations theory (Haidt)Care/harmFairness/cheatingLoyalty/betrayalAuthority/subversionSanctity/degradation(maybe liberty/oppression)http://www.moralfoundations.org/

20Do we feel disgust at all moral transgressions, or just those related to purity violations? What evidence do they provide?NeuroimagingSelf-report measuresBehavioral measuresImplicit measuresManipulations of disgust

21Individual differencesDisgust Scale (Haidt et al., 1994)http://www.yourmorals.org/disgust.phpThree Domain Disgust Scale (Tybur et al., 2009)http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.186.6114&rep=rep1&type=pdfWhat causes IDs in disgust?What are they correlated with? People with OCD22General disgust issuesHow is moral disgust different from physical disgust? How is it different from anger? Why would we have moral disgust?Which of their models seems best supported? (p. 320)How are they similar and different? 23Next week Social cognitionSystem justificationFree will24