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Transcript of Cheating Lessons
Learning from Academic Dishonesty
James M. Lang@LangOnCourseCheating Lessons 1The Failures of Cheating Searching for Princess Alice
Thesis Dan Ariely: the amount of dishonesty in which people are willing to engage depends on the structure of our daily environment.
The amount of cheating in which students are willing to engage depends (in part) on the structure of the learning environment. Learning Environments that Induce CheatingMotivation is Extrinsic Orientation toward PerformanceInfrequent, High-Stakes AssessmentsLow Self-EfficacyCheating Perceived as Common and Approved by PeersThe Cognitive TurnMuch of what weve been doing as teachers and students isnt serving us well, but some comparatively simple changes could make a big difference.Brown, Roediger, McDanielMake it Stick (Harvard UP, 2014)We dont need massive overhauls of the classroom environment in order to have powerful impacts on learning. And, in fact, timely interventions based on the research can be done in almost any type of classroom environment. Traditional lectures and studio or flipped classrooms would equally well benefit from these kinds of interventions.
6Frequent formative assessmentAndThe growth mindsetMaking the Case to FacultyFrequent AssessmentThe Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning
Test and Study80%Test but NO Study80%
NO Test OR Study33%Study but NO Test35%Karpicke and RoedigerScienceShort Answer Questions30-Day Recall Test: Art History Lectures
No Activity20%Focused Study36%Multiple Choice36%Short Answer47%
TransienceWhen information has not been used for longer and longer periods of time, it becomes less and less likely that it will be needed in the future . . . our memory systems have picked up on this . . . and in essence made a bet that when we haven't used information recently, we probably won't need it in the future.Daniel SchacterThe Seven Sins of MemoryLimits of MemoryIn long-term-memory the limiting factor is not storage capacity, but rather the ability to find what you need when you need it. Long-term memory is rather like having a vast amount of closet spaceit is easy to store many items, but it is difficult to retrieve the needed item in a timely fashion.Michelle MillerCollege TeachingTransience ReduxMemories . . . are encoded by modifications in the strengths of connections among neurons. When we experience an event or acquire a new fact, complex chemical changes occur at the junctionssynapsesthat connect neurons with one another. Experiments indicate that with the passage of time, these modifications can dissipate . . . Unless strengthened by subsequent retrieval and recounting, the connections become so weak that recall is eventually precluded.Daniel SchacterThe Seven Sins of MemoryThe Minute PaperWhen I first implemented this technique I was surprised at how very simple questions would still reveal misconceptions or misunderstandings in a significant proportion of the students. Even after classes in which I felt I had explained something very well and thoroughly, there were students for whom the answer to the assessment was not obvious.
Brian J. RogersonJournal of Chemical Education 80.2The Minute PaperHow many significant figures are there in the following measurements?a) 0.0560 L b) 5.5 x 104 km c) 10.0 ns d) 0.003 g
Give two reasons why K is more reactive than Li.
Why is it that AlCl3 is the empirical formula of the ionic compound made up of aluminum ions and chloride ions? Why not AlCl, AlCl5, or Al2Cl?Students returned one copy of the assessment, anonymouslyif they wished, and retained the second copy so that theycould check their work at the beginning of the next class whenthe correct and incorrect answers were discussed.
Incorrect responses occurred after lectures were given which he thought would ensure such responses would not occur.14The Minute PaperCourse Condition Failure/Dropout %
Control sections34.5Minute paper sections16.7
[S]ome comparatively simple changes could make a big difference.Make it StickNot surprisingly,the gain associated with the use of this technique was reflectedin an improved performance by the marginal students sincean increased frequency of students earning C and D gradeswas observed. Also, the fact that A and B grade frequenciesdid not change significantly between the two groups (20.0%vs 16.7% for A grades, and 21.1% vs 21.7% for B grades)suggests that students who earn these grades were not beingaffected by the technique15The Trump CardIn addition to learning, course evaluations improved:
Course ConditionHighest Course Rating %Control Sections50Minute Paper sections68.1Self-EfficacyMindset and CheatingIn one study, seventh graders told us how they would respond to an academic failurea poor test grade in a new course. Those with the growth mindset . . . said they would study harder for the next test. But those with the fixed mindset said they would study less . . . And, they said, they would seriously consider cheating.Carol DweckMindset (2006)International StudentsFixed: You have a certain amount of intelligence, and you cant really do much to change it.Growth: You can always substantially change how intelligent you are.
Those with the fixed mindset didnt want to expose their deficiencies . . . to feel smart in the short run, they were willing to put their college careers at risk.MindsetTeaching for Growth20Final ThoughtDishonesty reveals flaws in the very way science is taught. David Pritchard MIT