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Transcript of Chapter 5 Scope (5e) Feb08-1pp

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    Chapter 5:Chapter 5:

    Project Scope ManagementProject Scope Management

    In form at ion Tec hno logyIn form at ion Tec hno logy

    Pro jec t Managem ent ,Pro jec t Managem ent ,

    Fi f t h Edi t ionFi f t h Edi t ion

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    What is Project Scope Management? Scope refers to allthe work involved in creating

    the products of the project and the processesused to create them

    A deliverable is a product produced as part of aproject, such as hardware or software, planning

    documents, or meeting minutes

    Project scope management includes theprocesses involved in defining and controlling

    what is or is not included in a project

    Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 20074

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    Project Scope ManagementProcesses

    Scope planning: deciding how the scope will be

    defined, verified, and controlled Scope definition: reviewing the project charter and

    preliminary scope statement and adding moreinformation as requirements are developed and changerequests are approved

    Creating the WBS: subdividing the major projectdeliverables into smaller, more manageable components

    Scope verification: formalizing acceptance of theproject scope

    Scope control: controlling changes to project scope

    Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 20075

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    What Determines Success?

    Project Success =

    Product Success+

    Project Management Success

    These are largely determined bythe quality of your processes, and your ability to

    manage Project and Product Scope

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    Project vs. Product Scope

    Project ScopeProduct Scope

    Work done to deliverProduct with

    specified features &functions

    Features & functionscharacterizing a

    product or service

    Scope

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    Figure 5-1: Project ScopeManagement Summary

    Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 20078

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    Scope Planning and the ScopeManagement Plan The scope management plan is a document that

    includes descriptions of how the team will preparethe project scope statement, create the WBS,verify completion of the project deliverables, and

    control requests for changes to the project scope Key inputs include the project charter, preliminary

    scope statement, and project management plan

    Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 20079

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    Table 5-1: Sample Scope ManagementPlan

    Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 200711

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    Table 5-2: Sample Project Charter

    Information Technology Project Management, Fifth Edition, Copyright 200712

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    Project Description

    Make a one-page project description

    Key Parts:Project Objective Statement

    What will the project accomplish?Deliverables List

    What will the project produce for the

    customer?Primary Benefits

    What will the benefits be?

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    Project DescriptionObjective Statement:

    Avoid a long, random list of end items

    Instead, make a hierarchy of: Business objectives:

    describe the net effect of the end product

    (but not the end product itself) System or Ends objectives:

    describe physical /discrete characteristics of the end product

    Project or Means objectives:

    describe characteristics of the project,regardless of the end product

    Use only the top level items in the objectivestatement (KISS)

    What will the project accomplish?

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    Project Description

    Project Objective Statement Test

    Use Is / Is not techniqueto clear up boundaries

    The project Is NOT____________

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    The project Is NOT

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    The project Is ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    The project Is

    ____________

    ____________

    ____________

    ________________________

    ____________

    What will the project accomplish?

    Verbs

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    Flexibility Matrix A PRIORITIZED ordering of the three principle elements

    to manage on a project

    Used for daily decision making

    What are the Trade-off Priorities?

    Least Flexible Moderately Flexible Most Flexible

    Scope/Quality

    Schedule

    Resources

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    Scope Definition and theProject Scope Statement

    The preliminary scope statement, project charter,

    organizational process assets, and approvedchange requests provide a basis for creating theproject scope statement

    As time progresses, the scope of a project shouldbecome more clear and specific

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    Table 5-3: Further DefiningProject Scope

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    Project Management Plans

    Project

    Managem

    ent

    Plan

    Project

    Scope

    Statement

    HighLevelandbroad:IdentifiesSponsor&ProjectManager;authorizesdetailedprojectplanning(Authority)

    Detailed:

    PRODUCT scopedefinition:Features&functions

    (Specs) characterizingaproduct,service,orresult

    PROJECT scopedefinition:Work(Steps)done todelivertheproduct,service,orresultwithspecifiedfeatures&functions

    Summaryor

    Detailed:narrative

    defininghowtheprojectwillbeexecuted,monitored &controlled;howyoullhandleissues,risks,&changes (Control Processes)

    MgmtPla

    nsfor:

    Scope

    Schedule

    Cost

    Qualit

    y

    Staffing(HR)

    Commun

    ication

    Risk

    Procurem

    ent

    PreliminaryScopeStatement

    And usually

    The Plan

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    Good Scope Starts withGood Requirements.

    How Do I Get theRequirements Right?

    Understanding Requirements

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    Understanding RequirementsSome questions to ask:

    1. What is the Problem? (symptoms)

    2. What is the (REAL) Problem? (core)3. Where does the problem

    come from? (source and cause)3. 4. Whose problem is it?

    5. (Why) Do we really care to solve it?(bottom line - business case)

    Source: Are Your Lights On?, Don Gauss & Gerry Weinberg, Dorset House, 1990

    ISISDSDS

    PP

    Internal Stakeholders - People/orgs directly involvedDirect Stakeholders - People/orgs directly affected byPenumbra (Customers Customer) - People/orgs peripherallyaffected

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    Understanding Requirements

    Some things to consider:

    What do you do when not even the customerknows what they want?

    How do you estimate a

    requirement?

    Read the fable of the Vasa

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    Requirements Gathering Techniques

    Joint Requirements Definition Meeting

    Workshop approach

    Follow-up to a feasibility study

    Deliverables: Statement of Work (SOW), or

    Statement of Requirements (SOR)

    Requirements Kick-Off Meeting

    Involve all stakeholders (if possible)

    Driven by brainstorming checklist

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    Requirements Gathering Techniques

    Structured Interviews Generally done one-on-one

    Checklist approach

    Used to get specific user requirements

    Focus Groups Small group dynamics

    Used to examine aparticular area in depth

    Often uses storyboardingtechniques or prototypes

    These techniques usually lead to a long list ofrequirements that need prioritization.

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    Develop a Requirements Grid Try to divide

    requirements intocategories

    Use Pareto analysison needs assessment

    CurrentCurrent

    NeedsNeeds

    FutureFuture

    NeedsNeedsMustMust

    HavesHaves

    Nice toNice toHavesHaves

    80%

    20%

    30

    25

    15 15

    10

    5

    A B C D E F

    PMPMSweetSweetSpotSpot

    Use Quality FunctionDeployment (QFD)where appropriate

    Requirements Grid

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    Quality Function Deployment

    House of Quality

    Importance ofRequirementsRequirements

    Importance of DesignCharacteristics

    Design Characteristics

    Relationships

    Inter-relationships

    What

    How

    Voice of the Customer

    Stro