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  • 1. Manifest Destiny Chapter 13

2. Manifest Destiny What is it? The driving force (one component) behind Americas expansion to the west (specifically the Pacific Coast) Was not an official government policy Promoted heavily in newspapers, posters, and other propaganda John OSullivan first uses the term in a newspaper in 1845 manifest destiny to overspread the continent Regarding the annexation of Texas Says America was chosen to lead the continent out of wilderness Americans were chosen to establish civilization 3. Manifest Destiny What caused it? Myth of the Chosen Nation God chose the Americans to establish democracy from sea to shining sea The Louisiana Purchase over 1/3 of the continent is gained by Jeffersons legislation Government saw the appeal of potential land bringing more political power to the growing nation Land Availability + Politics + Religion = Manifest Destiny 4. Manifest Destiny What it meant to the country Through physical expansion to the west, the United States would be set on a course to become a political and social superpower Manifest Destiny adds fuel to the fire of expansion Advertising potential for great wealth in minerals in the West Promoting programs to help the downtrodden acquire and keep land in the West (if they paid their way) 5. Manifest Destiny Results Many Easterners head to the West in search of riches and a new start Most believing they were helping the US achieve Manifest Destiny and it was Gods chosen path for them Manifest Destiny expands to foreign policy Becomes the driving force behind the Mexican-American War Later, the Spanish-American War (after we achieve sea to shining sea Today, becomes intertwined with globalization We must spread democracy throughout the world 6. The Texas Revolution Texas under Mexican Rule Texas was the first part of Mexico to be settle by significant numbers of Americans Moses Austin (father of Stephen F. Austin) Due to the influx of Americans, Mexico felt that it was losing its control over Texas To make matters worse, Stephen F. Austin calls American settlers to demand greater autonomy from Mexico The goal was independence 1830 Mexico annuls existing land contracts and barred future emigration from the United States General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna sent an army to Texas to impose central authority Texan rebels, inspired by the U.S. Revolutionary War form a provisional government Their intent was to declare independence from Mexico 7. Stephen F. Austin Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 8. Battle of the Alamo 9. The Texas Revolution Battle of the Alamo Roughly 250 Texas built reinforcements inside the Alamo Santa Anna decides to launch an attack on the mission after a 12 day siege Only 2 Texans survive; 180 to 240 Texans dead; 400-600 Mexicans dead This is a pivotal point in the Texas Revolution as Santa Annas perceived cruelty inspired Texans to band together to defeat the Mexicans 10. The Texas Revolution Battle of San Jacinto The decisive battle of the Texas Revolution Santa Anna v. Sam Houston Battle in present-day Harris County Rallying cries, Remember the Alamo, and Remember Goliad Combat lasted less than 20 minutes; slaughter of Mexicans carried on for several more hours 630 Mexicans killed, over 700 captured; 280 wounded 11. The Road to the Mexican War Election of 1844 Whig Candidate: Henry Clay Democrat Candidate: James K. Polk Texas Annexation was a key issue Issue of slavery in Texas Why does John Tyler (incumbent) not run? Tries to run on an independent platform Alienates himself from Whig party, Whigs kick him out in 1841 Was William Henry Harrisons VP Harrison dies in office, he becomes Pres. James K. Polk (Dem.) John Tyler (Whig)William Henry Harrison (Whig) 12. Road to the Mexican War Election of 1844 Results James Polk wins (friend of Andrew Jackson, Tennessee slaveholder) He supported Texas annexation (even though it was Tylers idea) Supported reoccupation of Oregon Polks Goals Reduce tariffs Reestablish the Independent Treasury System Settle the Oregon dispute (Fifty-four Forty or Fight!!) Make California a state 13. Road to the Mexican War Oregon Territory Controversy Democrats wanted Polk to be as uncompromising on Oregon as he was on Texas annexation Fifty-Four Forty or Fight! U.S. should be prepared to go to war with Britain (again) if they were unwilling to move their border north to the 54, 40 degree boundary (near Russian- owned Alaska at this point) Polk decides to be diplomatic and settles on the 49th parallel (where Washington and Vancouver, B.C. still separate the two countries today) Bottom line: Manifest Destiny was attempting to claim British territory in the Northwest 14. The Mexican War Oregon obtained, now on to Mexico! Polk tries diplomacy again Send an agent to buy California, New Mexico, most of Arizona, and the Rio Grande border of Texas for $25 million They didnt take it; government was way too unstable Mexico also felt that they still owned Texas and the U.S. was plotting to take all of Mexico eventually Thornton Affair Detachment of U.S. troops scouted near the Rio Grande border (near present-day Brownsville) Skirmish with Mexican troops; 11 U.S. troops die Gives the U.S. a reason to declare war though the circumstances behind the attack are still uncertain 15. The Mexican War Declaring War Polk uses the Thornton Affair and Mexicos refusal to sell their land as a cause for war Exaggerates and says the Mexicans were actively attacking American soil War declared on 13 May 1846 Polarization on the War Whigs (North and South) vehemently denounce the war; see Manifest Destiny causing unnecessary expansion with a racist undertone Democrats (especially Southerners) support the war; see the merits of Manifest Destiny 16. The Mexican War Fighting the War on Three Fronts (1846-1848) Santa Fe Led by General Stephen Kerney Goal was to move through NM, AZ, and the Sonoran desert to meet up with troops in California California Kerney brings his troops through NM and AZ; arrives in California in late 1846 Finally defeats the Mexicans near Los Angeles in January 1847 Central Mexico Polk send General Zachary Taylor, finally occupies Mexico City in September 1847 17. The Mexican War (Occupation of Mexico City) 18. The Mexican War Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Land north of the Rio Grade, California, and everything in between up for grabs Mexico sells this land for $15 million (with a lot of influence from U.S. military) U.S. gain of 1.2 million square miles Why Not Take All of Mexico? Americans tired of expansion into Latin America Manifest Destiny took on a selective, racist mentality Americans came to believe Mexicans were inferior and did not want to include them as citizens 19. Migration to the West 20. Migration to the West California Gold Rush Explosive population growth and fierce competition Only worsened ethnic and racial conflicts Indians, Asians, and blacks all denied basic rights Thousands of Indian children, declared orphans, were bought and sold as slaves Gold discovered in late 1840s, U.S. government claimed unlimited amounts Most migrants came around 1849 (hence the San Francisco 49ers) Migrants also came from Asia By the early 1850s, gold mining became a corporate business Companies buying entire streams and valleys 21. Migration to the West Transportation and Communication Railroads grew exponentially during the 1840s By 1860, railroads covered the North The South struggled to keep up Railway developments coincided with iron developments (backed by great financial support) Clipper Ship Small, fast ship with big sails and a small hull Only way to travel to California before the trans- continental RR Telegraph Telegraph lines began to follow the paths of railroads 22. International Morse Code 23. Migration to the West Immigration 1840s Immigrants from Ireland come to the United States (1/4 of their population) Most were poor and took on very low paying jobs; some moved to the west Immigrants from Germany also came Creates tension in the United States regarding immigration due to the significant influx of immigrants 24. Crisis and Compromise Wilmot Proviso During the Mexican War, David Wilmot (Penn.) proposes a resolution prohibiting slavery in all territory acquired from Mexico Measure fails due to no Congressional action Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is acted upon instead (allowing slavery) The Free Soil Party After the end of the Mexican War, opponent of slavery expansion band together to form the Free Soil Party The party had appeal in the North because it would limit southern power in the federal government Their platform advocated for: Barring slavery from the west Providing homesteads to settlers in the west free of cost Southerners were outraged at the Free-Soilers singling out slavery Once again, the admission of free states would disrupt the balance of free/slave states Crisis begins again as California is admitted to the Union as a free state 25. Crisis and Compromise Compromise of 1850 Extended debate in Congress over California coming in as a free state Series of five bills California admitted as a free state Slave trade was abolished Territories of New Mexico and Utah organized under popular sovereignty (let the people decide whether to be a free or slave state) Fugitive Slave Act is passed (assists in return of runaway slaves) Texas gives up western land to pay off Republic of Texas debt ($10 million given to TX) This bill essentially postpones the Civil War for another decade Henry Clay was important in formulating the compromise He dies in 1852 26. Crisis and Compromise Gadsden Purchase (1853) U.S. gave Mexico $15 million for the remainder of AZ and NM Americans look to Cuba and the Philippines for international expansion Spain not ha