Cell Structure & Function

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Cell Structure & Function. http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html. Topic: Cell theory. EQ : What are the parts of the cell theory?. What is a cell?. A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. Who first discovered cells?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Cell Structure & Function

Cell Structure & Function

Cell Structure & Functionhttp://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html

Topic: Cell theoryEQ: What are the parts of the cell theory?What is a cell?A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.

Who first discovered cells?

Robert Hooke discovered the first cells. He built the first microscope. He then viewed cork from an oak tree. This is what he saw.

He thought they looked like the little rooms,so he called them cellsWhat part did microscopes play?Microscopes allowed scientists to see cells and other things that were too small to be seen with just their eyes.Time passed on.Better microscopes were built and other scientists began to look for cells in other places.

After many, many observations a theory was made..calledThe Cell TheoryThe cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope.

Many scientists contributed to the cell theory.Cell TheoryThe three principles of the cell theory:

1. All living things are made up of cells. 2. The cell is the smallest of all life3. All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.

ISN 52Create a Cell Theory Bubble map Topic: Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic CellsProkaryotic


102 Basic Types of CellsProkaryotes (prokaryotic cells)Cells that DO NOT have a nucleusExamples: bacteriaEukaryotes (eukaryotic cells)Cells that DO have a nucleus and other organellesExamples: plant cells and animal cells

Prokaryotic Cells12ProkaryoticDNA: free-floating, not surrounded by a membraneOrganelles: Not many organellesLevel of organization: One-celled (unicellular) Size: small


PlantAnimalhttp://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.htmlEukaryotic CellsDNA: surrounded by a membraneOrganelles: Many specialized partsLevel of Organization:Multicellular: plants, fungi, animals, and protistsSize: larger

15Examples of Cells

Amoeba ProteusPlant StemRed Blood Cell

Nerve Cell


Types of Cells

http://www-class.unl.edu/bios201a/spring97/group6http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gifTypical Plant Cell

Typical Animal Cell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gifCell PartsOrganelles Topic: Cell Organelles (Shape and movement

EQ: Explain the function of the 7 cell organelles.Shape and movementParts of a cell have unique functions. A cell is made up of different structures that keep it alive. They each have a different job.What is an organelle?An organelle is a part of the cell that has a specific job. They are little organs or parts inside of a cell.

What is the Nucleus? Directs cell activities (Boss of the cell)Contains genetic material DNAFound in Plant and Animal Cells

What is the cell membrane?Flexible covering

Protects and controls movement in and out of the cell

Found in plant & animal cells. It only allows certain materials to pass (selectively permeable)


What is a cell wall?Only in plants

A stiff structure outside the cell membrane.

Adds support & helps the plant keep its shape.


What is the cytoskeleton?A network of threadlike proteins that are joined together and help give the cell its shape and help it move.DirectionsCut out table on pg. 65 and glue in your ISN 56 Movement of materials in a cellEQ: Explain the function of the 7 cell organelles.How do materials move in and out of the cell?Two processes:

A. DiffusionB. OsmosisWhat is Cytoplasm?A fluid inside a cell that contains salts and other molecules.

Surrounded by cell membraneWhat is diffusion?The movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Diffusion moves ALL KINDS of materials in/out of cells

What does diffusion look like?http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_diffusion_works.htmlWhat is osmosis?The diffusion of water molecules through a membrane

This process refers to transferring only WATER in/out of cells

What does osmosis look like?OsmosisWhy is osmosis and diffusion important?Both of these processes allows for things the cell need (water, nutrients, etc.) to get in and wastes have a way to leave out.Double-BubbleWhat is diffusion?What is osmosis?

Where did you get this information?diffusionosmosisTopic: Cells Energy and StorageEQ: Explain the function of the 7 cell organellesEukaryotic Cell Organelles and FunctionMitochondriaNickname: The PowerhouseFunction: Energy formationBreaks down food to make ATPATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy


Animal CellNucleusNucleolusRough Endoplasmic ReticulumSmooth Endoplasmic ReticulumRibosomesGolgi BodiesMitochondriaCell MembraneCytoplasm42Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and FunctionVacuolesFunction: stores waterOnly in plant cellsThis is what makes lettuce crispWhen there is no water, the plant wilts43

Section 7-2Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal CellsGo to Section:Plant CellCell MembraneVacuole44Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and FunctionChloroplastsFunction: traps energy from the sun to produce food for the plant cellGreen in color because of chlorophyll, which is a green pigmentFound only in plant cells45

Section 7-2Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal CellsGo to Section:Plant CellCell MembraneVacuoleChloroplasts46Nuclear MembraneSurrounds nucleusMade of two layersOpenings allow material to enter and leave nucleus


ChromosomesIn nucleusMade of DNAContain instructions for traits & characteristics


NucleolusInside nucleusContains RNA to build proteins


Endoplasmic Reticulum

Moves materials around in cellSmooth type: lacks ribosomesRough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htmlRibosomesEach cell contains thousandsMake proteinsFound on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell


MitochondriaProduces energy through chemical reactions breaking down fats & carbohydratesControls level of water and other materials in cellRecycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates


Golgi BodiesProtein 'packaging plant'Move materials within the cellMove materials out of the cell


LysosomeDigestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydratesTransports undigested material to cell membrane for removalCell breaks down if lysosome explodes


VacuolesMembrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removalContains water solutionHelp plants maintain shape


ChloroplastUsually found in plant cellsContains green chlorophyllWhere photosynthesis takes place