Cell Structure & Function
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Cell Structure & Function
Cell Structure & Functionhttp://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html
Microscopes and Cells1600s.Anton van Leeuwenhoek first described living cells as seen through a simple microscope.
Microscopes and CellsRobert Hooke used the first compound microscope to view thinly sliced cork cells.
Compound scopes use a series of lenses to magnify in steps.Hooke was the first to use the term cell.
Microscopes and Cells1830s.Mathias Schleiden identified the first plant cells and concluded that all plants are made of cells.
- Thomas Schwann made the same conclusion about animal cells.
Cell TheoryAll living things are made up of cells. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.
Definition of CellA cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. Examples of Cells
Amoeba ProteusPlant StemRed Blood Cell
BacteriaTwo Types of CellsProkaryotic
EukaryoticProkaryoticDo not have structures surrounded by membranesFew internal structuresOne-celled organisms, like Bacteria
http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.htmlEukaryoticContain organelles surrounded by membranesFound in most living organisms
PlantAnimalhttp://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.htmlTypical Animal Cell
http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gifhttp://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gifTypical Plant Cell
Cell PartsOrganellesSurrounding the CellCell MembraneOuter membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cellDouble layer Thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell
Cell WallMost commonly found in plant cells & bacteriaSupports & protects cells
Inside the CellNucleus Directs cell activitiesSeparated from cytoplasm by nuclear membraneContains genetic material - DNANuclear MembraneSurrounds nucleusMade of two layersOpenings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
ChromosomesIn nucleusMade of DNAContain instructions for traits & characteristics
NucleolusInside nucleusContains RNA to build proteins
CytoplasmGel-like mixtureSurrounded by cell membraneContains hereditary material Endoplasmic Reticulum
Moves materials around in cellSmooth type: lacks ribosomesRough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.htmlRibosomesEach cell contains thousandsMake proteinsFound on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell
MitochondriaProduces energy through chemical reactions breaking down fats & carbohydratesControls level of water and other materials in cellRecycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
Golgi BodiesProtein 'packaging plant'Move materials within the cellMove materials out of the cell
LysosomeDigestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydratesTransports undigested material to cell membrane for removalCell breaks down if lysosome explodes
VacuolesMembrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removalContains water solutionHelp plants maintain shape
ChloroplastUsually found in plant cellsContains green chlorophyllWhere photosynthesis takes place