Cell Structure and Function
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Transcript of Cell Structure and Function
Cell Structure and FunctionChapter 3Size Comparison
Domain II: Cellular Basis of Life*Explain the cellular basis of life*Homeostasis*Transport cellular material through cell membrane*Stem Cells
What is a Stem Cell?What have you heard about stem cells?Where do you think stem cells come from?What are stem cells for?What is a cell?What do you think is the benefit of stem cells?
Cute Stem Cell Animation
Name the 3 parts of the Cell Theory?1) Cell is the basic unit of life2) All organisms are composed of cells3) All cells come from pre-existing cells
Who were the initial cell Scientists? Pg.71Robert Hooke 1665. First to see a cell. Named it after Monk Cells. (Cork)Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1673. 1st to see microscopic organisms.
What characteristics are needed to consider something alive?1) Require food for energy2) Use energy to maintain homeostasis3) Respond to stimuli4) Grow and develop5) Reproduce similar offspring6) Ability to pass genetic information7) Made of cells
What is the difference between a multicellular and unicellular organism?Unicellular exist as a single independent cell. Example: amoebaMulticellular- organisms that exist as specialized groups of cells.Order of cellular specialization: cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
Which of the following is a correct statement regarding tissues?A) Tissues hold organs togetherB) Tissues form plasma membranesC) Tissues are composed of organs with several functionsD) Tissues are composed of cells with similar functions
What is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote?Prokaryote-No membrane bound organelles. Only bacteria are considered prokaryotes. pg.72Eukaryote- Contains membrane bound organelles, including a true nucleus.Cell Comparisons
Which of the following is an example of a prokaryotic cell?A)An animal cellB) A bacterial cellC) A fungal cellD) A plant cell
Answer : b, both archae and Eubacteria are prokaryotes
What do all cells have in common?Have a plasma membrane- semi-permeable structure surrounding the cellCytoplasm- jelly-like substance where cells chemical reactions occur as well as where organelles are found.Fluid-Mosaic Model
How are cells different?Size: Cells must be small for diffusion. The closer the surface Area/Volume ration the more diffusion. Shape: Fig 4-2. Long, Flat, Branching, etc.Type of organelles and the number of each kind. (Red blood cells have no nucleus, Animal cells have no cell wall.)Different types of cells have different needs therefore different structures.StemCell DifferentiationWhat is a stem cell?
What is an Organelle?Part of a cell that performs a job. Like an organ does a job for the body organelles do the same for a cell.
United streaming video clipCell Movie: Amoebas &Animal Cells
Which organelles are found in plant cells but not in animal cells?Plastids such as Chloroplast- capture solar energy for photosynthesisCell Wall- Adds structure and support to the cellPlants also have much larger vacuoles for storing water then animal cells.
Define the following organelles: Golgi bodies, Mitochondria, Nucleus, Ribosome, and Vacuoles.
Golgi bodies- package and distribute lipids and proteinsMitochondria- powerhouse of the cell, transforms energy
Definitions continuedNucleus- contains DNA which controls cellular activitiesRibosomes- produce proteins, found on the rough ERVacuoles- store substances such as water.
Define the following organelles:Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), Rough ER, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): Make Fats such as steroids.Rough ER: Contain Ribosomes. Package and ship proteins made on Ribosomes.
Organelles ContinuedLysosome: Contain Digestive enzymes. Think SOS
Nucleolus: Ribosomes and other RNA are synthesized.
Great LysosomeShort Movie
Define the following organellesFlagella: Whip like structure made of microtubules. Few in number and long.Cilia: numerous short hair-like structures. Also made of Microtublules.Flagella and Cillia Video ClipVery Good!
In the animal cell, in which cell part does cellular respiration occur?A) B)C) D)Answer: A Mitochondria
Organelle Review Link
Review: Which of the following is a characteristic of all living things?A) Cellular StructureB) Nervous SystemC) ChlorophyllD) Hemoglobin
Review: What is homeostasis?Maintenance of internal equilibrium Example: Body to returning to normal temperature (98.7) after a fever.
Which of the following statements best demonstrates homeostasis?A) The intestine has a large surface area.B) Humans tend to have 5 fingers on each hand.C) Humans sweat when they get hotD) Cells have maximum attainable size.Answer:C
Back to Stem Cells!How are stem cell made?Why do you think stem cells exist?Do differentiated cells have different organells?MakingStemCells
Ch 3.4 & 3.5: Homeostasis and TransportHow do substance enter and exit a cell?What is the difference between active and passive transport?How does the chemical make-up of the plasma membrane affect what can enter and exit the cell?
The plasma membrane only allows certain things to enter and exit the cell. What is this called?Selectively permeable membrane or selectively permeable
What is passive transport? Name and describe the 3 types.Passive Transport- movement of substance of substances across the plasma membrane without the use of energy.Passive Transport
The Three TypesDiffusion: movement of substances across the plasma membrane from high to low concentrationOsmosis: diffusion of water across the plasma membrane from high to low concentrationFacilitated Diffusion: carrier molecules transport larger substances across the membrane from high to low.
What is active transport? Describe the two major types.Active Transport: uses energy and carrier molecules to move substances across the plasma membrane from low to high concentrations (against the concentration gradient)
The two types of Active TransportEndocytosis: process by which large particles are brought into the cellExocytosis: process by which large particles leave the cell
Substances that are too large to be moved across the plasma membrane can be engulfed through the process of A) DiffusionB) EndocytosisC) ExocytosisD) OsmosisAnswer: BEndo= inside, Exo= Outside, cyto=cell, osis= process or action
There are 3 types of solutions a cell can be in.1) Hypotonic2) Hypertonic3) IsotonicHypo/Hyper/IsoScroll DownHypo/Hyper/Iso SolutionsRed blood cell
Describe a cell in an isotonic solution.Iso= the same. The concentration of the solution is the same inside and outside the cell. The cell stays the same size. There is no net movement across the plasma membrane (things enter and leave the cell at the same rate)
Describe a cell in an hypertonic solution.Hyper= above. The concentration of the solution is higher outside the cell than inside. The cell shrivels in size.Water leaves the cell at a faster rate then it enters.
Describe a cell in an hypotonic solution.Hypo= below. The concentration of solutions is lower outside the cell then inside.The cell swells or pops in size. hyPO=POPWater enters the cell at a faster rate than it leaves
A student is making a model to demonstrate how cells respond to solutions with varying concentrations of salt and water. She soaked a kidney bean in distilled water until it started to swell. In what kind of solution should she put the swollen bean to cause it to shrivel?A) AcidicB) BasicC) HypertonicD) HypotonicAnswer: C