Cell Structure and function

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Cell Structure and function. Eukaryotic Cell Structure. What are the major cell structures? What are their functions?. www.cellsalive.com www.learngenetics.utah (cell link). Reinforce your knowledge of organelles by playing the games and completing the activities at the websites posted. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Cell Structure and function

  • Cell Structure and function

  • Eukaryotic Cell StructureWhat are the major cell structures?

    What are their functions?

  • www.cellsalive.com www.learngenetics.utah (cell link).Reinforce your knowledge of organelles by playing the games and completing the activities at the websites posted

  • In the human body, organs perform specialized jobs. For example, the heart transports blood. In cells, tiny ___________ carry out specialized jobs.tissuesOrgan systemsorganellesOrgan systems

  • What is the function of the mitochondria?Make lipidsMake proteinsControl the cell Make energy

  • What is the function of ribosomeS?Make lipidsMake proteinsControl the cellPackage and transport materials

  • Which of the following organelles are found only in plant cells?MitochondriaChloroplastGolgi apparatusLysosomes

  • Which of the following cells do not have nuclei?Plant AnimalEukaryoteProkaryote

  • Where is dna located in a eukaryotic cell?MitochondriaNucleusCytoplasmGolgi Apparatus

  • All cells haveNucleusEndoplasmic reticulumCell WallCell Membrane

  • How well do you know the organelles and their functions? I can recall all of the organelles, their functions, where they are in the cell and how they work together. I can recall all of the organelles but am unclear on how some of them work. I remember the names of many organelles but dont know their functions. I only remember a few organelles.

  • Describe the differences, similarities and evolutionary links between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  • Describe the differences, similarities and evolutionary links between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    ProkaryotesEukaryotesBothNo nucleus

    Smaller and simpler cells

    No membrane bound organelles

    Most primitive form of life on Earth

    Example: bacteria

    Nucleus

    Larger and more complex cells

    Have membrane bound organelles

    Examples:PlantsAnimalsFungiProtists single celled (unicellular) organismsLiving things

    DNA

    Ribosomes

    Cytoplasm

    Cell membrane

  • Describe the differences, similarities and evolutionary links between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.List four things that are different between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

    Put these differences in order from most important to least important.

  • What is a membrane bound structure that contains genetic material and controls many of the cells activities? ProkaryoteEukaryoteNucleusCell membrane

  • Which of the following cells do not contain a nucleus?Animal cellPlant cellBacterial cell

  • Both prokaryotes and eukaryoteshave a nucleushave DNAhave membrane bound organellesare the same size

  • True or false? Eukaryotes are cells that do not have a nucleus.TrueFalse

  • Which type of eukaryotes are often single celled (unicellular)?bacteriaprotistsFungi like yeasts & moldsMushroom-bearing fungiPlants like treesAnimals like brine shrimp or small insects

  • How well do you know the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? I can recall and explain all of the major differences and similarities. I can list all of the major differences and similarities. I only know a few major differences or similarities.I dont remember the differences between these two types of cells.

  • Prokaryotes have no membrane bound organelles, including nuclei, in their cells. Eukaryote cells contain membrane bound organelles in the cellsProkaryoteeukaryoteNaked DNADNA in membrane bound nucleusRibosomesribosomesCytoplasmcytoplasm (cytosol)CytoskeletoncytoskeletonPlasma membraneplasma membraneCell wall (some)Cell wall (some protists, all plants, & fungi)Flagella & cilia (some)flagella & cilia (some)All: golgi, smooth & rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, vacuoles, lysosomes or peroxisomes, mitochondria some: chloroplasts

  • Animals and plants are always multicellular with specialized (they look different & function differently) cells. Most protists are unicellular organisms, although some are colonial (cells are clumped together but do not depend on each other or do specialized jobs)

    Cells in a leaf cells in gut Yeasts, molds (fungi) mushroom protists

  • Which type of eukaryotes are often single celled (unicellular)?bacteriaprotistsFungi like yeasts & moldsMushroom-bearing fungiPlants like treesAnimals like brine shrimp or small insects

  • Note these drawings of animal and plant cells. Which does NOT have a cell wall outside its plasma membrane? Fungi also have cell walls; so do some protists and some bacteria. Cells walls are made of cellulose in plants, chitin in fungi, peptidoglycan in eubacteria. Cell walls extra support & extra protection for cells.

  • Cell walls protect cells from bursting and provide them support against pressure (so they dont get crushed). Which kingdom (the only one) NEVER has cell walls? AnimalArchaebacteriaEubacteriaFungiProtistsplants

  • The job of a cell wall is to: Protect and provide supportAllow cells to photosynthesizeSurround the cytoplasm

  • Cell walls in plants are made out of? chitincellulosePhospholipid bilayersPeptidoglycanproteins

  • Which structure is found in (specific to)a plant cell,but not an animal cell. ChloroplastslysosomesmitochondriaRough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)Smooth ER (SER)Cell walls

  • Which is the organelle that holds thecells DNA (its genome) and is the control center of the cell?centriolemitochondrianucleolusNucleuscytoplasm

  • What molecules inside the nucleus allow it to serve as the cells control center?DNAcarbohydratesproteinsLipidsRNA

  • When DNA in the nucleus is only visible as grains or tangled strands, it is called:chromosomeschromatinnucleolusNuclear pores

  • When DNA is wrapped around _________called histones, it is called chromatin. When chromatin is packed tightly enough to be visible, it is called a chromosome.carbohydrateslipidsproteinsNucleic acids

  • When you view eukaryotic cells vialight microscopy, you see a small dark, denseregion inside the nucleus. It is called the:

    ribosomenucleolusnucleoplasmNuclear membraneNuclear pore

  • These organelles are assembled in nucleoli.golgiribosomesvacuoleslysosomes

  • The nuclear envelope is made of a double layer of ___________ surrounding the nucleus.proteinsNucleic acidscarbohydratesphospholipids

  • The structure composed of a networkof protein filaments whose job is supporting the cells shape, allowing cell movement, &moving organelles inside the cell is the:Cell membraneCell wallCytoskeletonCilium, flagellum

  • Match the cytoskeletal protein filamentsto their correct functions:Microtubules, form flagella, cilia & centrioles, while actin microfilaments allow cells to change shape like during cytokinesis or amoebas extending pseudopodia Actin microfilaments, form flagella, cilia & centrioles Microtubules, attach to cell membranes to allow cells to move with pseudopodia (false feet)

  • What is the difference between Roughendoplasmic reticulum (RER) and SER?SER is used to transport material from place to place inside the cellRER is used to transport material from place to place inside the cellSER is a tube made of cell membraneRibosomes attached to RER inject proteins into it, then enzymes modify the proteins.

  • Which is true of peroxisomes & lysosomes?Contain enzymes to make lipidsBreak down & recycle old cell structures & contain hydrolytic enzymes that digest lipids, carbohydrates & proteinsModify proteinsStore genetic information

  • Ribosomes Use light energy to make carbohydratesAttach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membranelooks like a stack of pancakes.Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in foodAre membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteinsAre membrane sacs used for storageSynthesize proteins following gene instructionsAre membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles.

  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): Use light energy to make carbohydratesAttach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membranelooks like a stack of pancakes.Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in foodAre membrane tubes whose enzymes construct components of membranes (SER) or modify proteins (RER)Are membrane sacs used for storageSynthesize proteins following gene instructionsAre membrane sacs filled w/ digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles.

  • Golgi apparatus:Use light energy to make carbohydratesAttach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to final destinationslooks like a stack of pancakes.Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in foodAre membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteinsAre membrane sacs used for storageSynthesize proteins following gene instructionsAre membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles.

  • Lysosomes: Use light energy to make carbohydratesAttach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membranelooks like a stack of pancakes.Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in foodAre membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteinsAre membrane