Brancaccio, Pia; Behrendt, Kurt (Eds) - Gandharan Buddhism

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The ancient region of Gandhara, with its prominent Buddhist heritage, has long fascinated scholars of art history, archaeology, and textual studies. Discoveries of inscriptions, text fragments, sites, and artworks in the last decade have added new pieces to the Gandharan puzzle, redefining how we understand the region and its cultural complexity.The essays in this volume reassess Gandharan Buddhism in light of these findings, utilizing a multidisciplinary approach that illuminates the complex historical and cultural dynamics of the region. By integrating archaeology, art history, numismatics, epigraphy, and textual sources, the contributors articulate the nature of Gandharan Buddhism and its practices, along with the significance of the relic tradition. Contributions by several giants in the field, including Shoshin Kuwayama, John Rosenfield, and the late Maurizio Taddei, set the geographical, historical, and archaeological parameters for the collection.The result is a productive interdisciplinary conversation on the enigmatic nature of Gandharan Buddhism that joins together a number of significant pieces in a complex cultural mosaic. It will appeal to a large and diverse readership, including those interested in the early Buddhist religious tradition of Asia and its art, as well as specialists in the study of South and Central Asian Buddhist art, archaeology, and texts.

Transcript of Brancaccio, Pia; Behrendt, Kurt (Eds) - Gandharan Buddhism

  • Gandharan Buddhism

  • A s ia n R e l ig io n s a n d S o c i e t y S e r ie s

    Pilgrim s, Patrons, and Place: Localizing Sanctity in Asian R elig io n s

    E d ite d by P h y llis G r a n o ff a n d K o ic h i Sh in o hara

    Im ages in Asian R e lig io n s: Texts and Contexts

    E d it e d by P h y llis G r a n o ff an d K o ic h i S h in o h ara

    Jap an s M o d e rn Prophet: U chim ura K anzo, 18 6 1- 19 3 0

    J o h n F. H o w es

    Gandharan Buddhism : Archaeology, A rt, Texts

    E d ite d by P ia Brancaccio an d K u r t B ehrendt

    A B u d d h a D ^ HARMA K y o k a i F o u n d a t i o n B o o k

    o n B u d d h is m a n d C o m p a r a t iv e R e l i g i o n

  • Edited by Pia Brancaccio and Kurt Behrendt

    g a n d h A r a n b u d d h i s m A rchaeology, Art, Texts

    U B C P r e s s -V an co u ver -Toronto

  • UBC Press 2006

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be re produ ced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without prior written permission of the publisher, or, in Canada, in the case of photo copying or other reprographic copying, a licence from Access Copyright (Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency), w w v. a.ccesscopyright.ca.

    15 14 13 12 II 10 09 08 07 06 5 4 3 2 I

    Printed in Canada on ancient-forest-free paper (100% post-consumer recycled) that is processed cniorine- and acid-free, with vegetable-based inks.

    Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

    Gandharan Buddhism : archaeology, art, texts / edited by Pia Brancaccio and Kurt Behrendt.

    (Asian religions and society series, ISSN 1705-476)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN -13: 978-0- 7748- 1080-7 ISBN -10: 0-7748- 1080-7

    1. Buddhism - Gandha.ra (Pakistan and Afghanistan) - His tory. 2 . Gandhara (Pakistan and Afghanistan) - Antiquities. 3 . Relics Gandhara (Pakistan and Afghanistan). 4 . Art, Buddhist Gandhara (Pakistan and Afghanistan). 5. Art, Gandhara. 1. Brancaccio, Pia,1966- II. Behrendt, Kurt A., 1964- III. Tide. IV. Series.

    BQ 286.G35 2006___________ 294.30934___________ C 2006-900161-8_____________

    A publication project oftheYehan Numata Program in Buddhist Studies at the University of Toronto at Mississauga. '

    C a n a d a

    UBC Press gratefiily acknowledges the financial support for our publishing program of the Government of Canada through the Book P ublishing Indu stry D evelo pment Program (BPlDP). and of the Canada Council for the Arts, and the British Columbia Arts Council.

    UBC PressThe University of British Columbia 2029 West Mall Vancouver, B C V 6 T i Z zwww.ubcpress.ca Photo on/acing page by E'/len Raven.

  • To the memory of Maurizio Taddei

  • This page intentionally left blank,

  • Contents

    Illustrations / IX

    Acknow ledgm ents / X II

    Introduction / i

    P ia Brancaccio a n d K u r t B eh ren dt

    1 Prologue: Som e D ebating Points on Gandharan B uddh ism and Kusna

    H istory / 9

    J o h n M . R o sen fie ld

    P a r t i : A r c h a e o l o g y

    2 R e ce n t A rchaeological R esearch in G and h ara:T he N e w Evid ence / 4 1

    M a u riz io Taddei

    3 Buddhist Presence in the U rban Settlements o f Sw at, Second C en tu ry

    B C E to Fourth C en tu ry C E / 60

    Pietfmncesco C alH en

    4- R e lic Shrines o f G andhara:A R einterpretation o f the A rchaeological

    E vid en ce / 83

    Kurt B eh ren dt

    P a r t i i : T e x t s

    5 P ilgrim age R o u te Changes and the D ecline o f Gandhara / 1 0 7

    Sh o sh in K u w a y a m a

    6 N e w M anuscript Sources for the Study o f Gandharan Buddhism / 135

    R ic h a rd S a lom on

    P a r t I I I : A r t

    7 Bodhisattvas in Gandharan Art: A n A spect o f M ahayana in Gandharan B uddhism / 15 1

    Ju h y u n g R h i

  • v i i Contents

    8 The N ature and Use o f the B od ily R e lic s o f the Buddha in Gandhara / 183

    R o b ert L . B ro w n

    9 Gateways to the Buddha: Figures under Arches in Early Gandharan A rt / 2 10

    P ia Brancactio

    10 A Gandharan R e lie fw it h Tw o Scenes from B udd h as Life / 225

    A n n a M a ria Q u aglio tti

    n Local Crafts in E arly Gandharan A rt / 243

    D oris A'Ieth Srin ivasan

    1 2 A nanda andVajrapSni:An Inexplicable Absence and a M ysterious Presenc e in Gandharan A rt / 270

    Am ia FH igenzi

    13 D esign D iversity in Kaniskas Buddha C oins / 286

    E lle n M . R a v e n

    C ontributors / 303

    Index / 306

  • Illustrations

    1 . 1 Buddhist ideal m onarch and seven emblems ofsovereignty, Jaggayyapeta / 13

    1 .2 W orshippers o f the bodhi tree o fK aSyap a B uddha, B h arh u t / 15

    1.3 Sakyam uni flanked by M aitreya, Indra, Brahm a, and unidentified

    bodhisattva, Sah ri-B ahlo l / 18

    1.4 Standing im age o fM a itreya bodhisattva,Ahicchattr / 19

    1.5 Preaching Sakyam uni and display o f deities, M oh am m ed N a ri I ! 2 1

    2 .1 Fragm ent with w arriors and elephant, Saidu S h a rif I / 44

    3. 1 Seal, B ir-kot-gh w and ai / 633 .2 C eram ic pot, B ir-kot-gh w an d ai / 63

    3.3 Terracotta fem ale figurine, B ir-kot-gh w an d ai / 643.4 Fragm ent o f terracotta figurine, B ir-kot-gh w an d ai / 65

    3.5 V ie w o f the Buddhist sacred area in B ir-kot-gh w and ai / 66

    3.6 Fragm ents o fp laster decoration, B ir-ko t-gh w an d ai / 67

    3 .7 Bodhisattva stele, Bir-kot-ghwar;t

  • x illustrations

    6.2 Sample o f a British Library Kharosthi fragm ent / 139

    7. i R e l ie f show ing alternating Buddhas and bodhisattvas / 153

    7.2 Detail o f Figure 7 .1 , show'ing three pairs o f Buddhas and bodhisattvas / 1537.3 Bodhisattva M aitreya, S ikri / 155

    7.4 Bodhisattva Siddhartha, Shabaz-G arhi / 156

    7.5 Bodhisattva, possibly AvalokiteSvara / 157

    7.6 Bodhisattva Siddhartha in the First M editation, Sahri-BahIol / 158

    7 .7 Bodhisattva AvalokiteSvara holding a lotus, L oriyan la n g a i / 159

    7.8 Bodhisattva AvalokiteSvara in pensive pose / 160

    7.9 Bodhisattva hold ing a b o o k / 16 1

    7 .10 Crossed-ankle bodhisattva inside a shrine / 162

    n Bodhisattva head / 164

    12 Bodhisattva AvalokiteSvara, Sahri-Bahlol / 165

    13 Buddha triad, Sahri-Bahlol / 166

    14 Buddha triad inside a shrine, Sahri-Bahlol / 167

    15 Buddha triad, L oriyan la n g a i / 169

    16 Part o fB u d d h a triad / 170

    17 Crossed-ankle bodhisattva flanked b y tw o pensive bodhisattvas / 172

    18 Bodhisattva surrounded b y m ultiple emanations / 173

    8 .1 D rona distributing the relics, R an ig at / 184

    8 .2 R e liq u ary (the Indravarm an Casket) / 1858.3 R eliqu ary, Passani, M ghanistan / 186

    8.4 R e liq u ary / 187

    8.5 R e liq u ary / 1888.6 Partial contents o f reliquary in Fig. 8.4 / 189

    8.7 M ore contents from reliquary in Fig. 8.4 / 190

    8.8 G o ld flowers pierced for attachment to clothing / 194

    8.9 D raw ing show ing placem ent o f gold decoration sew n on clothing, T ilya

    Tepe / 19410 C osm etic box, T ilya Tepe / 195

    n Cosm etic bo x ,T ilya Tepe / 19612 Cosm etic box, T ilya Tepe / 196

    13 C osm etic b o x and spatula, T ilya Tepe / 197

    14 C osm etic b o x ,T ilya Tepe / 197

    15 Cosm etic box, T ilya Tepe / 198

    16 T w o cosm etic boxes, T ilya Tepe / 19817 R eliquary, Bim aran / 199

    18 Three reliquaries / 199

    19 R eliquary; Kotpur, Afghanistan / 200

    8.20 Shapes o f cosm etic boxes from T ilya Tepe for com parison w ith similar

    shapes o f Gandharan reliquaries / 202

  • Illustrations x i

    8 .21 D raw in g o f burials at T ilya Tepe / 204

    9 .1 M ith u n a under caitya arch, Butkara I / 2 1 19.2 Figures under caitya arches, M aljanai / 2 12

    9.3 Stupa shrine, B utkara I / 2 13

    9.4 W orship o f the Turban, Bhrhut / 2 14

    9.5 Figure in Classical dress under caitya arch, Butkara I / 2 179.6 Vertical re lie f depicting figures under caitya arches, Butkara I / 218

    9.7 False gable, Butkara I / 2 19

    9.8 A rcade w ith worshippers, D harm arjik, Taxila / 220

    10 . I D raw in g o f a scene from B uddh as life, Bharat Kala Bhavan / 227

    10 .2 Tw o scenes from B u d d h a s life, Butkara I / 229

    10 .3 T w o figures, the female one w ith a m irror, Butkara I / 231

    10 .4 D raw in g o f Suddhodanas visit in the A shoka w ood / 232

    10 .5 C o p p er objects, Sirkap,Taxila / 237

    1 1 . 1 T h e Buddha preaching toVajrapapi and a group o f w om en, Dharm arjik,

    Taxila / 2471 1 .2 Buddha preaching to the gods in the Tryastximsa H eaven, S ikri / 248

    1 1 .3 Entreating the Buddha, L oriyan Tangai / 249

    1 1 .4 Interpretation o f M aya s D ream , Guides M ess / 253

    1 1 .5 Parinirvna, G uides M ess / 2541 1 .6 T h e Great Leave-Taking, Butkara I / 255

    1 1 . 7 Entreating the Buddha, Sw at / 256

    II .8 Enthroned Bodhisattva, S ikri / 261

    1 2 . 1 T h e Subm ission ofA palala / 274

    12 .2 B u d d h a w ith fem ale worshippers andVajrapani / 276

    12 .3 Vajrapani/Vajrasattva on a vcy'ra-shaped throne / 278

    12 .4 B uddh a on an inhabited vqjw-shaped throne / 279

    12 .5 R e a r v ie w o f fig . 12 .4 ! 280

    12 .6 B uddh a pare. / 28 1

    12 .7 B u d d h a im age fro m Benares / 282

    13 . 1 G o ld dinara o fK a n isk a I / 28613 .2 Buddhas standing facing front / 290

    13 .3 Buddha standing facing front,