BOD Source Reduction For Beverage Plants 2010

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This is Technical Paper put together for International Society of Beverage Technologist that goes a step further than Reuse and provides the Beverage Industry to Contain and Collect all other sources of waste in plants to be prepared for Ethanol and agricultural markets or converted on site to Biogas. Thus providing a new source of Revenue vs a cost center

Transcript of BOD Source Reduction For Beverage Plants 2010

  • 1. THE BEVERAGE INDUSTRYOPPORTUNITY FOR BOD SOURCE REDUCTIONAuthor; Alan Sheppard, Recovery Systems, September, 2009

2. 1. Rising Costs of Treating B.O.D. Waste in Beverage Plants A. Municipal Plants face maximum CapacityMunicipal waste treatment facilities are faced with the same budgetary problems as all other government agencies. Therefore, they must look for waste (BOD) reduction in other areas in order to cut costs and still provide an essential service to the public. In the past, beverage production facilities were charged a nominal fee in order to deal with the sugar discharged into the sewage system. However, the waste treatment facilities have opportunity to deal with the waste generated by these production facilities. These discharge limits have skyrocketed over the last 10 to 15 years due to old technology that allows the treatment facilities to burden the amount of sugar being discharged into the sewage system. These limits will continue to grow as do the costs to treat the waste. Therefore, the beverage production facilities will be faced with assisting the waste treatment facilities, or look for alternative solutions in order to deal with the problem. EPA's Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP) The 2008 MSGP regulates discharges of stormwater from industrial activities. The MSGP includes requirements affecting 29 different industrial sectors (PDF) (7 pp, 255K). The 2008 MSGP specifies steps that facility operators must take prior to becoming eligible for permit coverage, including submitting a Notice of Intent (NOI), installing stormwater control measures to minimize pollutants in stormwater runoff, and developing a stormwater pollution prevention plan (SWPPP). The MSGP also includes effluent limits, monitoring, inspection, and reporting requirements, and corrective action requirements. View the general two-page fact sheet (PDF) (2 pp, 72K) summarizing the final 2008 MSGP 3. SECTOR U: FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTSU1 2041-2048 Grain Mill ProductsU2 2074-2079 Fats and Oils ProductsU32011-2015 Meat Products2021-2026 Dairy Products2032-2038 Canned, Frozen, and Preserved Fruits, Vegetables, and Food Specialties2051-2053 Bakery Products2061-2068 Sugar and Confectionery Products2082-2087 Beverages2091-2099 Miscellaneous Food Preparations and Kindred Products2111-2141 Tobaccohttp://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/sector_u_food.pdfDetails of Sector U 4. B. Nations Infrastructure Gap C. Full Cost PricingFull cost pricing is a pricing structure for drinking water and wastewater service which fully recovers the cost of providing that service in an economically efficient, environmentally sound, and socially acceptable manner, and which promotes efficient water use by customers.D. Costs of Plant Facility Treatment Many production facilities have been forced to build their own waste treatment facilities on site in order to deal with the waste before it is discharged to the sewage system. These on-site facilities, while effective; require a large amount of monetary funds to build power and maintain. 5. Another answer may be to find the causes of the waste and find solutions to deal with the problem at the source. This can be done, and by dealing with the problem instead of the after the fact solution, can be profitable to the facility.2. Sources of B.O.D. WasteThe first items that must be addressed are the sources of the waste. There are many areas that production facilities share as the cause for most of the sugar being sent to the sewage system. We will identify these areas and follow with solutions to prevent or collect the waste, and find alterative methods to deal with the waste as a by-product rather than an end of pipe problem of maximum limits being sent to Municipalities.A.Start-Up of a Flavor (Dump Filler)The first issue is starting a new flavor of beverage at the blending and filling equipment. Anytime a new flavor of beverage is started, the blender and filler will retain water in the equipment from the previous rinse. The new flavor will then be produced in the blender and sent to the filler and will come up weak due to the collection of water. This is commonly delt with by flushing the filler with approximately two bowls of product to ensure that all of the residual water has been removed from the blending and filling equipment. This product is sent to the waste treatment facility. The blender and filler are then filled with product and QA personnel can now take samples to the lab for testing.B.Out of Spec ProductIf the samples are determined to be within specification, the production run can now begin. However, if the product is found to be out of specification, (brix, assay or CO2 content), the product in the carbo- cooler or product holding tank and filler will have to be dumped and all of this product will be sent to the waste treatment facility. This issue can 6. also happen during the middle of the run. Due to mechanical failure, or operator error, the product can go out of specification and the operator will have no other choice but to dump the blender and filler, fix the issue, and restart the production process.C.End of Flavor Run (Matching Containers to Beverage)Another issue that must be addressed in the filler room is the container cut-off (matching the correct number of containers to the volume of syrup and beverage). There are many factors that must be taken into account when performing a successful container cut-off. The first of which is the distance of the bulk syrup tank from the blender. Each bulk syrup tank is a different distance from the blender in the filler room. This distance is reflected by the length of piping between the bulk syrup tank and the blender. The farther the distance, the longer the piping. Most cut-offs are performed by (a) looking at a sight glass on the bulk syrup tank, or (b) opening the bulk syrup tank door and having the operator make an educated estimate as to how many gallons remain in the tank. Once the operator estimates that the correct amount of gallons are left in the tank, the syrup room operator will call the depal operator and tell him/her not put on any more containers. This estimate of gallons is further complicated by the distance of the piping to the blender. If the supply piping from the bulk syrup tank is 3 in diameter, the piping will hold approximately 1 gallon of syrup to every 4 of piping. The distance between the closest tank to the farthest tank may differ by up to 200 with all of the other tanks located somewhere in between. This calculates to the number of gallons of syrup in the tank needed in order to perform the cutoff, differing from the closest to the farthest tank by 50 gallons. This means that the syrup room personnel must include this calculation in every cut-off from every tank in the syrup room.Example: The closest tank will need 70 gallons of syrup to perform the cut-off when syrup room personnel notify the depal operator to stop putting on containers. The farthest tank will need 20 gallons of syrup in 7. the tank when syrup room personnel notify the depal operator to stop putting on containers. All other tanks that are located between these tanks will also have a different number of gallons needed in each tank in accordance to the length of piping or volume of syrup held in the piping between the tank and the blender.The next factor that must be added into the cut-off equation is the ratio of the syrup being blended at the blender. This ratio is the amount of water that will be added to the syrup at the blending equipment. Different syrups are blended at different ratios dependent upon blend specifications set forth by the production facility. These blend ratios can differ from a 4 to 1 ratio to a 6 to 1 ratio. This means that 100 gallons of syrup in the bulk syrup tank, at a 4 to 1 ratio will produce 500 gallons of finished product. This same 100 gallons at a 6 to 1 ratio will produce 700 gallons of finished product. There are many different ratios that different syrups are blended at and this calculation must also be added into the equation before notifying the depal operator to stop loading the containers at the depal.The size of the container being run must also be figured into the equation. Most production lines run more than one size container. Many run as many as 5 different size packages. The size of the container being run must also be figured in, in order to perform a successful cut-off and eliminate waste.D.Packaged Out of Spec ProductThe final major source of B.O.D. comes from product that is considered out of specification, yet has already been put into the container. These include lowfills, hold product or out of spec product, out of date product, and closure failure. These containers must have the beverage extracted and the container will then be recycled. This beverage will be extracted and be sent directly to the waste treatment facility. This product can be Collected, Contained, and Removed in a controlled manner. 8. 3. PreventionA. Accountability,Without it, Sustainability is just a good idea. An exercise comparing water use efficiency and waste water discharge with production volumes, over time and against industry standards is a fitting tool used for the prevention of B.O.D. waste. An in depth survey of ALL water use and recommendations for savings along with a performance confirmation program will bring you to the implementation of the issues identified in the survey.The use of a log in the syrup room as well as the filler room to track B.O.D. waste would directly connect you to one of the main sources.. Anytime syrup is discharged to the floor of the syrup room or syrup or beverage is lost in the filler room, a log should be kept to help the QA, Maintenance and Production departments recognize potential problems and solutions to keep the issue from reoccurring. This log can also be used to better track syrup yields, recognize potential mechanical issues and recognize