Bloodborne and Airborne pathogens

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Bloodborne and Airborne pathogens. Ruth Weiscarger, BSN, RN. Pathogen. A pathogen is any agent that causes disease. Bloodborne Pathogens. Disease causing microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or parasites) carried in human blood. Common bloodborne pathogens include: Hepatitis A - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Bloodborne and Airborne pathogens

Blood Borne Pathogens

Bloodborne andAirborne pathogens

Ruth Weiscarger, BSN, RN 10 points per question 1-9. 1Pathogen

A pathogen is any agent that causes diseaseBloodborne PathogensDisease causing microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or parasites) carried in human blood.

Common bloodborne pathogens include: Hepatitis A Hepatitis B HIV

Pathogens may be transmitted through unprotected contact with human blood or body fluids.Blood borne pathogens are disease-causing . Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or parasites) carried in the human blood. May be transmitted by blood splashes, or sprays, handling or touching contaminated items or surfaces, and infection under the skin by puncture wounds or cuts from contaminated sharps. Example: Needle sticks. Most occupational transmission of HIV has occurred through puncture injuries from contaminated sharps.3Airborne PathogensAirborne pathogens are disease-causing agents that spread infection through droplets or dust.Eg. Coughing, sneezing.

For example the common cold is moved from person to person by coughing and sneezingCombining the strategies of respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette helps minimize the transmission of air borne pathogens. 4Chain of Transmission Several elements must exist for a pathogen to cause illness or disease:Source-infected person or animalRoute of Transmission-contact, air, etc.Portal of entry-cut, nose etc.Susceptible host

Several elements must exist for a pathogen to cause illness or disease. These elements are referred to as the chain of transmission. The chain includes

SourceRoutePortal of entrySusceptible host Common portals of entry are mucous membranes, the respiratory tract, and non-intact skin open cuts. 5OSHAUS Department of Labors Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Regulations issued to protect employees of certain jobs from BLOODBORNE/AIRBORNE pathogens.

Regulations are known as OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard

Employee safety is insured by training, education, safety measures and exposure control.Blood Borne Pathogens and the LAW: Because certain jobs may involve contact with blood or body fluids, the US DEPT of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued regulations to protect employees from blood borne pathogens. The regulations are known as the Bloodborne pathogen standards.6OSHA RegulationsOSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard was first issued in 1991 to protect employees from occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.

Respiratory Protection Standard are designed to promote employee safety through proper training, education, prevention and exposure control methods. 7OSHA Regulations Regulations require employers to use a combination of engineering and work practice controls such as protective clothing and equipment, safety precautions in the workplace.

Go over slide: These are also referred to as Protective barriers. Examples gowns, gloves, goggles. Needles devices. Sharps containers. Employees required to receive training related to the Barriers they should wear when taking care of a patients universally, what protective barriers they may need for patient in specific isolation or what they should use for a specific procedure. Talk about examples of what they will see at some of the clinical sites.

8Engineering ControlsControls/products protective barriersdesigned/developedto create a saferworking environment.

Ex. Needleless systems, sharps containers, eye stations.

Most hospitals have needless IV systems, needles that when used properly protect the needle. Engineering controls are simply barriers and products put in place to protect you the health care worker. If you dont wear THE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT OR USE THE EQUIPMENT AS INTENDED you are putting your self at risk FOR EXPOSURE THAT COULD BE PREVENTED. In addition when you go from room to room patient to patient need good hand hygiene and utilize appropriate barriers.9OSHA TrainingGoal of training is to educate employees regarding bloodborne pathogen issues and how to minimize or eliminate the exposure to bloodborne pathogens by using a combination of standard precautions, personal protective equipment (PPE) , work practice controls, and engineering controlsTraining is initiated upon hire and must be done within the first year of employment. Standards must be updated yearly and when new standards are implemented.

The scope of the standards addresses not only employees who may have direct contact with blood or body fluids but the potential for exposure. Example even secretaries, receptionists in clinical areas. Employees who are required to handle blood or Education Examples: using appropriate engineering controls depending on the procedure, or type of isolation involved. The barriers required are identified on policy and procedures and in nursing references. Disvcuss what you can find at WBGH: Mosby, Clinical Policies. 10OSHA EXPECTATIONS

Objective is to minimize or eliminate the hazard posed by the exposure.

Prevent infection by immunization when possible.

Knowledge of symptoms of infection.

Counseling after exposure incident.

Post exposure treatments and follow-up.WHO NEEDS OSHA TRAININGAnyone who has the potential for exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIMs).

Ex. Physicians, nurses, physicians assistants, nurse practioners, other healthcare employees.

Anyone who has potential . ER admission or intake person. Employees of clinical and diagnostic laboratories, housekeepers in health care facilities. Employees in hospital or laundries tissue bank personnel, blood banks, plasma center, freestanding clinics urgent centers.

12ROUTE OF TRANSMISSIONContactDroplet FoodAir vector Contact is the most common means of transmission. Direct contact occurs when a pathogen is passes from person to person. Example someone has an open cut on their hand and fails to wear gloves when rendering care to a patient with an open bleeding wound. Indirect contact occurs when a person is exposed to pathogens (contaminated items ) such as bed linens, contaminated objects or soiled dressings.

Droplet transmission occurs when droplets contaminated with infectious pathogens are expelled during coughing or sneezing, talking, aerosol generating procedures such as suctioning are transferred into the air through the hosts mucous membranes with in 3 to 6 feet of the infected person. In some circumstances Pathogens considered to be transmitted by droplets may also be transmitted by droplets. Example common cold. Most well known airborne-transmitted disease is TB, which affects the respiratory system as well as other organ systems. Vector ( nonhuman transmission) occurs when animals or insects ( fleas, mosquitoes, birds, rodents, malaria, or West Nile virus.)13Hierarchy of controlsBoth OSHA and the CDC believe that preventing pathogen exposures requires a comprehensive program of strategies:Administrative controls: Providing vaccinations and promptingInfection prevention and control training programsEngineering controls eg, needless devices, plastic capillary tubesWork practice controls: Hand hygiene, no needle recapping

Administrative controls are polices and programs that manage and support the infection prevention control program. These programs may include vaccination programs. Some offer flu and pneumonia vaccinations, hepatitis B free of charge. Tetanus DPT, chicken pox. An example of a work place control /Administrative control are designated areas. Nurses stations are clean areas and there should be no food or drink in theses areas. 14Engineering Controls Hand washing stationsEye wash stationsSharps containersBiohazard labelsNeedless devices and self sheathing needles

Examples of what would be considered engineering controls.Hand hygiene/hand washing is one of the most effective methods of preventing transmission of pathogens/infection. Wash hands between patients.It is required that you wash your hands before and after taking care of a patient. Wash hands after removal of gloves. PPE Personal Protection Equipment. Gloves, gowns, masks ect..goggles, face masks, masks on patients traveling with droplet or air borne processes.

15Contaminated Sharps Any contaminated object that can penetrate skin, including but not limited to needles, scalpels, broken capillary tubes, exposed ends of dental wires.

A sharps is any contaminated objectsee slide16Contaminated Sharps Contaminated needles or sharps must NOT be bent, recapped, or removed unless no alternative is feasible.

Reusable sharps must be placed in clearly labeled, puncture-resistant, leak-proof containers immediately or as soon as possible after use.

Reusable sharps must be decontaminated before reuse. 17Sharps ContainersThe Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates sharps disposal containers as Class II Medical devices.

OSHAs Bloodborne Pathogens Standard establishes minimum design performance elements for sharps disposal containers.

A sharps container must have a biohazard label.According to the standard the sharps container must meet four criteria to be considered acceptable. Must having a warning labeled, color coded, it must be closable, puncture resistant, leak proof on the sides and the bottom.18Sharps ContainersA sharps container must meet certain criteria to meet the Standard:Must be closablePuncture resistantLeak proof on sides and bottomLabeled or color coded

Discuss location, patient rooms, dirty utility rooms, med rooms. Emptied when full. Some hospitals remove and empty by them selves others have companies come in 1-2 times per week to change them. Laboratory personal and IV therapy staff have small ones in b