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Bloodborne pathogens. Bloodborne Diseases HIV HBV HCV. Objective. Understand the difference between HBV, HCV, and HIV Learn effective ways to decrease risks Understand the Exposure Control Plan Able to identify engineering controls Understand work practice controls - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bloodborne pathogens

Bloodborne pathogensBloodborne DiseasesHIVHBVHCV

Bloodborne diseases are cause for concern for anyone working in healthcare.Bloodborne pathogens are infectious microorganisms in human blood that can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B (HBV, and Hepatitis C (HCV)Occupational Safety and Health (OSHAs) bloodborne pathogens standard prescribes safeguards to protect workers against health hazards caused by bloodborne pathogens.

1ObjectiveUnderstand the difference between HBV, HCV, and HIVLearn effective ways to decrease risksUnderstand the Exposure Control PlanAble to identify engineering controlsUnderstand work practice controlsSharps safety guidelinesPersonal protective equipmentGood housekeeping practices

Workers in any occupations including first aid team members, housekeeping, nurses, and other healthcare personnel may be at risk.Newborns, elderly persons, and persons with weakened immune systems are especially susceptible.

2Hepatitis BCauses serious liver diseaseHalf of those infected have no symptomsSymptoms include: jaundice, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, occasional nausea and diarrhea10% become chronically infectedEach year 5,000 die from chronic liver cancerHepatitis B vaccine is recognized as an effective defense against Hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B is more easily transmitted, therefore poses a greater risk to healthcare workers.

3Hepatitis CCauses serious liver diseaseCauses symptoms similar to hepatitis B85% of people infected with HCV have chronic infectionsPeople with chronic infections have no symptoms for up to 30 years but the liver is slowly being damagedNo vaccine is available to treat Hepatitis CNewly approved antiviral drugs have been effective

The symptoms for hepatitis B and hepatitis C are similar, but 85% of those infected with HCV will have chronic infections and only 10% will have chronic HBV infections. Every year close to 10,000 people die from HCV.Leading indicator for liver transplants

4HIV Human Immunodeficiency VirusAttacks the immune system

Infected person becomes symptomatic when the immune system loses its ability to fight infections.

HIV can lead to Acquired Immune deficiency - AIDS

According to the CDC 900,000 are infected

The number of people who develop AIDS has decreased

HIV attacks the immune system and destroys the bodies ability to fight infections.

Over 900,000 people in the United States are infected with HIV. Thanks to the development of treatments for HIV infections, the number of people who develop serious illness and die from AIDS has decreased.

At this time there is no cure for HIV infection.5Transmission Usually spread by contact with blood

Spread by contact with other potentially infectious materials (OPIM)

Other body fluids or tissue containing visible bloodSemen and vaginal secretionscerebrospinal, synovial , pleural, peritoneal, pericardial and amniotic fluids. Saliva in dental proceduresNon-intact skin, organs from both living and dead humansCell tissue, organ cultures, biological matter from lab experiments

Hepatitis B, C and HIV are spread through contact with blood

All three viruses can be spread through semen, vaginal secretions, and other body fluids or tissue containing blood. cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, and pleural fluid.

6Means of TransmissionAccidental injury by a contaminated sharp objectNeedles, scalpels, broken glass, exposed dental wires

Open cuts or abrasions on the skin

Indirect transmission

Needle stick injuries cause 80% of the exposures

Contaminated surfaces = HBV

Accidental injury can be caused by any sharp contaminated object that punctures or cuts your skin.Open cuts, nicks, abrasions, dermatitis, and mucous membranes can be a mode of transmission.Indirect transmission touching a contaminated object or surface then touching mucous membranes or open areas on the skinContaminated surfaces with dried blood can transmit HBV up to one week at room temperatures

7Exposure Control PlanWritten plan to minimize occupational exposures

Identifies the job classifications that have exposure risks

Identifies job classifications that have some risk of exposure

Lists the tasks and procedures performed by those workers

Changes made to eliminate or decrease risk of exposures

Procedures to follow if an exposure occursA copy should be available for employees to consult during work hoursIdentifies the measures taken to reduce the risk of exposure Outlines the procedure that you should follow if you have an accidental exposure to potential pathogens8Engineering ControlsDevices that isolate or remove bloodborne pathogens hazards

Sharps disposal containersSelf-sheathing needlesSafer medical devices

Sharps with engineered sharps-injury protectionNeedless systems

9Engineering ControlsThe effectiveness of the controls depend on you!

A sharps container provides no protection if you do not use it properly. Capping a needle by hand before using does not provide effective prevention controls.Work Practice ControlsHandwashing

Decreases the chance of infectionDecreases the risk of transmissionWash you handsEvery time you remove or change your glovesWhen you come into contact with blood or body fluidsBetween caring for patientsUse antiseptic hand cleaner when running water is not available. Wash your hands as soon as possible if antiseptic cleaner is used

If you become exposed to infectious material, wash the area quickly this simple act deceases your chances of becoming infected and decreases the chance of transmission through mucous membranes, cuts on the skin, or contaminating other surfaces and spreading the pathogen.Wash hands before and after patient contact, after contact with blood, body fluids, excretions, mucous membranes, non-intact skin, wound dressings, between a contaminated body site and a clean body site, after contact with objects in patient surroundings, after glove removalAntiseptic hand sanitizers is approved by the CDC when hands are not visibly soiled.

11HandwashingAccording to WHO (World Health Organization)

Adequate handwashing with soap and water takes 40-60 seconds

The average time adopted by healthcare workers is