Augmented Reality with Phones for Way 2.1 Augmented Reality Augmented Reality (AR) is an interactive

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  • Augmented Reality with Phones for Way Finding

    Zhibo Zhang

    U6015337

    COMP4560

    The Research School of Computer Science, CECS

    Australian National University

    28 May 2019

  • The Australian National University | 2

    Acknowledgment

    Finishing this report takes a long time in coding and evaluation. I am writing to extend

    my sincere gratitude to those people who helped me with this project.

    Firstly, I have my best wishes to my supervisor, Henry Gardener, and my tutor, Wanqi

    Zhao. They took a long time to help me to get familiar with AR environment and

    Unity3D. They also provided lots of instructions about project management and report

    writing skills. I also want to thank Penny who gives a lot of ideas about how to evaluate

    an AR application.

    Finally, I want to thank my parents gave me chance to have this great experience in

    ANU and encouraged me during the project. Also, I want to say thanks to my friend

    Yukun who was willing to be my listener by my side.

  • The Australian National University | 3

    Abstract

    Nowadays, many kinds of map applications can be found in phones. A map application

    helps people to navigate in the real world. With the development of Augmented Reality

    (AR), it is possible to combine such applications with three dimensional graphical

    overlays on top of a real image. Such AR technology offers the prospect of making the

    map applications more convenient to use.

    This report is about designing and implementing an application on an Android phone

    for wayfinding by implementing Augmented Reality using Unity3D. Current research

    about Augmented Reality and wayfinding system are outlined, including how

    Augmented Reality technology has developed and what other researchers have done to

    combine it with wayfinding problems. An AR phone application prototype on Android

    is then implemented, using Unity3D, ARKit, and Mapbox, to find directions to

    locations outside and inside of buildings. Based on the AR map prototype, a Heuristic

    Evaluation is performed, and its results are used to improve the prototype.

  • The Australian National University | 4

    Content

    1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 9

    1.1 Outline of the project ................................................................................... 9

    1.2 Motivation ................................................................................................... 9

    1.3 Structure of the report ................................................................................ 10

    2 Background ....................................................................................................... 11

    2.1 Augmented Reality .................................................................................... 11

    2.2 GPS ............................................................................................................ 13

    2.3 AR in wayfinding ...................................................................................... 14

    3 Project Plan ....................................................................................................... 18

    4 Implementation ................................................................................................. 19

    4.1 Development environment ........................................................................ 19

    4.2 Import Mapbox-plugin .............................................................................. 20

    4.3 Match GPS and initialize the map ............................................................. 21

    4.4 Navigation in 2D map................................................................................ 22

    4.5 Navigation outside the building ................................................................. 23

    4.6 Navigation inside the building ................................................................... 24

  • The Australian National University | 5

    4.7 NavMesh .................................................................................................... 25

    4.8 User interface design ................................................................................. 28

    5 Evaluation ......................................................................................................... 30

    5.1 Heuristic Evaluation Principles ................................................................. 30

    5.2 Heuristic Evaluation Process ..................................................................... 32

    5.3 Improvement based on evaluation ............................................................. 42

    6 Limitations and Future Work ............................................................................ 43

    6.1 Limitations ................................................................................................. 43

    6.2 Future Work ............................................................................................... 44

    7 Conclusion ........................................................................................................ 45

    8 Bibliography ..................................................................................................... 46

    9 Appendix 1 Product Screenshot ........................................................................ 48

    10 Appendix 2 Contract ..................................................................................... 57

    11 Appendix 3 Evaluation .................................................................................. 61

  • The Australian National University | 6

    Figure Content

    Figure 1: 2D mobile map and AR map (Google ARMap) ........................................ 10

    Figure 2: Span in Milgram's Reality-Virtuality (Milgram et al., 1995) ....................... 12

    Figure 3: How Virtual Information Display(Report et al., 2016) ................................ 13

    Figure 4: Narzt’s program (Narzt et al., 2006) ............................................................ 15

    Figure 5: Narzt's program workflow(Narzt et al., 2006) ............................................. 15

    Figure 6: Kim & Jun's Program(Kim and Jun, 2008) .................................................. 16

    Figure 7: Kim & Jun program workflow ..................................................................... 17

    Figure 8: Mapbox Setup in Unity3D ........................................................................... 21

    Figure 9: GeoToWorldPosition Method. ...................................................................... 22

    Figure 10: Screenshot from 2D map ............................................................................ 23

    Figure 11: Workflow for 2D and AR outdoor map ...................................................... 24

    Figure 12: AR indoor map workflow ........................................................................... 25

    Figure 13: NavMesh without path rendering ............................................................... 26

    Figure 14: NavMesh with rendering path .................................................................... 27

    Figure 15: Screenshot of indoor map prototype .......................................................... 29

    Figure 16: Task device and materials ........................................................................... 39

  • The Australian National University | 7

    Figure 17: Check point when during task .................................................................... 39

    Figure 18: Screenshot of the new prototype ................................................................ 42

    Figure 19: Screenshot of new prototype with reference check point ........................... 43

    Figure 20: Workspace in Unity3D ............................................................................... 48

    Figure 23: Original prototype screenshot 1 ................................................................. 49

    Figure 24: Original prototype screenshot 2 ................................................................. 50

    Figure 25: Original prototype screenshot 3 ................................................................. 51

    Figure 26: Original prototype screenshot 4 ................................................................. 52

    Figure 27: Original prototype screenshot 5 ................................................................. 53

    Figure 28: New prototype screenshot 1 ....................................................................... 54

    Figure 29: New prototype screenshot 2 ....................................................................... 55

    Figure 30: New prototype screenshot 3 ....................................................................... 56

  • The Australian National University | 8

    Table Content

    Table 1: Development environment ............................................................................. 20

    Table 2: Usability Principles for AR Application (Ko et al., 2013) ....................