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Transcript of ANCIENT INDUS CIVILIZATIONS You are here Egypt Mesopotamia INDIA CHINA

  • Slide 1
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  • Early India & Geography Early Indian civilizations developed in the Indus River valley India is separated from the rest of Asia by two major mountain ranges Himalayas Hindu Kush Himalayas Hindu Kush Indian subcontinent
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  • Invaders can only enter the Indian subcontinent by water or through a small number of mountain passes Himalayas Hindu Kush Indian subcontinent Khyber Pass most well-known mountain pass Khyber Pass
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  • Plains stretch south from the mountains There are three major rivers on these plains Indus Ganges Brahmaputra Indus River Ganges River Brahmaputra River Early India & Geography
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  • Two seasonal winds called Monsoons affect the climate Winter or Northeast (November to March) Brings dry air from mountains Summer or Southwest (June to September) Brings wet air from the ocean Early India & Geography
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  • HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION Harappan civilization reached its zenith about 2500 B.C.E. Most important advancement of the Harappan people was the development of planned cities Cities were laid out in a grid pattern
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  • ARRIVAL of the ARYANS About 1500 B.C. a group of peoples called Aryans invaded the Indus River valley thru the Kyber Pass ARYANS
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  • Nomads at first, settled down into agriculture in Indus Valley each tribe led by a Rajah (chief) Cattle served as basis of diet, eventually used as money spoke Sanskrit language wrote the Vedas means Books of Knowledge formed basis of the Aryan religion that would become Hinduism ARRIVAL of the ARYANS
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  • Society developed into the Caste System o Law of Manu laws that governed caste system o 4 Varnas (social classes) developed o Each Varna had its own duties called Dharma o Varnas were subdivided into smaller Jati 5 th group developed = Dalits o broken people ARRIVAL of the ARYANS
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  • Outcasts Harijan (Children of God) Chandalas (Impure Ones) Too low to be in the caste system Considered impure from birth Perform jobs that are traditionally considered unclean Scavengers, clean toilets and sewers, handle dead bodies Originally-could not enter villages/city during the day -could not walk in same street with other castes -shadow was considered impure -very sight of them was a bad omen -generally lived on outskirts of villages/cities -unknown/uncared for MOVEMENT THROUGH CASTE SYSTEM COULD ONLY BE ACHIEVED THROUGH REINCARNATION UNTOUCHABL ES
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  • CASTE SYSTEM Varnas Groups outside the Varnas
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  • Mauryan Empire 321 BC - 184 BC Chandragupta Maurya Unified India Skilled administrator Developed efficient postal system Ashoka grandson of Chandragupta built an empire that covered 2/3 of India
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  • 262 BC Ashoka converted Buddhism after battle saddened by loss of life never again went to war ruled by morality Carved laws on poles and put throughout India followed Ahimsa non-violence began building hospitals, schools, sent out Buddhist missionaries built road with Rest Stops for travelers Mauryan Empire 321 BC - 184 BC
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  • Gupta Empire 310 ad 415 ad Golden Age of India Education, Arts Folktales & Drama: Panchantantra folktales to teach moral lessons through stories of animals Kalidasa, wrote Shakuntala about the love between a king and forest maiden Mathematics: principles leading to algebra Invented concepts of infinity and zero devised symbols for 1-9 (Arabic Numerals)
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  • Gupta Empire 310 ad 415 ad Golden Age of India Astronomy: Geography earth is round Trade: Arabia gems, spices, cotton, ebony China silk Rome gold built many Hindu temples