Chapter 2: Ancient River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia Ancient Egypt Indus River Valley Ancient...

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Transcript of Chapter 2: Ancient River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia Ancient Egypt Indus River Valley Ancient...

  • Chapter 2: Ancient River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia Ancient Egypt Indus River Valley Ancient China

  • MesopotamiaGeographyMesopotamia was located in the Fertile Crescent, between the Tigris and Euphrates River. It was a flat, swampy area with fertile soil. The natural resources were limited, and flooding was unpredictable.

    Political DevelopmentsThe civilization of Mesopotamia was split into city-states which functioned as independent countries. At first, priests ruled. Ziggurats were used as city halls. Eventually, Hammurabis code was developed. It was a uniform code for all of Mesopotamia. The punishments for various crimes were based on gender and social ranking. The code used retaliation to punish crimes.Key PeopleSargon of Akkad- Defeated the city states of Sumer. United both Northern and Southern Mesopotamia, and created the worlds first empire.Hammurabi- Babylonian Empire reached its peak during his rule. He was known for his law code.

    Economic DevelopmentsTo survive, the people built irrigation ditches, and traded with people of the mountains and desert.

  • Social DevelopmentsMesopotamia was the beginning of social classes. Priests and kings were at the top of the social pyramid, followed by wealthy merchants, fieldworkers, and finally, slaves. Women were able to hold property, and join the lower ranks of priesthood. Few knew how to read and write.ReligionThe people of Mesopotamia were polytheistic. They believed that gods controlled different forces of nature. Their gods had human qualities, but were immortal, and all-powerful. To please the gods, sacrifices were made, and ziggurats were built. They also believed in an afterlife, but it was a dismal place, and known as a land of no return.TechnologyThe people of the Fertile Crescent developed the:WheelSailPlowUse of BronzeFirst system of writing, cuneiformMeasure of time360 in a circle

  • Ancient EgyptGeographyEgypt was fairly isolated because of the desert which surrounded it. The Nile River flooded regularly, and made a narrow strip of land around the Nile fertile. The Nile greatly impacted peoples lives.

    TechnologyEgyptians developed written numbers. They also created early geometry, the modern day calendar, and the basis for medicine.Political DevelopmentsThere were for a long time two separate kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. A single pharoah ruled who was believed to be a god. This is known as a theocracy.

    Key PeopleMenes- A king of Upper Egypt, who united all of Egypt. He built his capital, Memphis, where Upper and Lower Egypt met.

  • Economic DevelopmentsThe Ancient Egyptians had contact with the people of Mesopotamia. Trading Caravans traveled between the two regions. Ships also traveled to Nubia and Kush in the South in search of gold, ivory, and granite.Religion The Egyptians believed in polytheism. They also believed in an afterlife where a person would be judged for the deeds they performed in their life. A dead persons body was preserved by way of mummification. Pyramids were built for pharaohs to serve as tombs which were supplied with clothing, food, jewelry, and anything else the person might need in the afterlife.Social DevelopmentsThe social pyramid in Egypt went in the following order: the pharaoh and royal family, wealthy landowners, priests, government officials, merchants, artisans, peasant farmers, unskilled laborers, and slaves. There was some social mobility. People could rise in ranking through marriage. Women could own and trade property. They could also propose magic or seek divorce.

  • The Indus River ValleyGeographyBehind the Himalayan Mountains there is a large, flat, and fertile plain created by the Indus and Ganges River. Seasonal windsmonsoons control Indias climate. Crops were dependant on wet and dry seasons brought by monsoons.

    ReligionThe people of Mohenjo-Daro believed in an early form of Hinduism.TechnologyThe people of Mohenjo-Daro had planned cities which were built on a grid system. Early engineers created complex plumbing and sewage systems.

  • River Dynasties in ChinaGeographyChinas two main rivers were the Huang Ho and the Yangtze. When the Huang He flooded yellow silt overflowed its banks which was actually fertile soil called loess. Natural barriers isolated China, so the people living there had to supply their own goods.

    Political DevelopmentThe Mandate of Heaven was used to justify a rulers rights to command China. When natural disasters occurred it was thought that spirits were displeased with the kings rule, and the dynasty would be overthrown and replaced with another. The cycle of dynasties was repeated until it was overthrown in the early 1900s.

  • Social DevelopmentThe family was central to Chinese society. Elder men in the family controlled property and made important decisions. Social classes were sharply divided between nobles and peasants. Women had no rights. A girl was married between the ages of 13 and 16.Economic DevelopmentAs large cities grew, roads and canals were built to supply them. This stimulated trade and agriculture. Coin money was introduced and this further improved trade. ReligionFamily was closely linked to religion. The Chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good fortune or disaster to living family. Sacrifices were made in honor of these spirits. They believed in a main godShang Di, and many lesser gods. They consulted the gods through the use of oracle bones.TechnologyIron was used to create stronger agricultural tools and weapons.