Alexander the Great & An Overview of Greek Culture Why does it matter?

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  • Alexander the Great & An Overview of Greek CultureWhy does it matter?

  • Alexander the Great356 Alexander born in Pella, Macedonia 342 Alexander begins tutoring w/ Aristotle. His father has defeated the Greeks.343 Alexander tames Bucephalas his horse. Shadows the issue. He keeps him for 16 years.336 Phillip assassinated (possibly by his wife) Alexander becomes leader of Macedonia.

  • Alexander and ThebesAlexander needed to assert his authority immediately.When Thebes rebelled, Alexander razed the city to the ground and killed all citizens.

  • Alexander and PersiaAlexander invaded Persia in 334.Battle of GranicusDiffering AccountsTook of Asia MinorAlexander almost died

  • ContBattle of Issus November 333Persians about 100,000 men. Alexander about 40,000.Demoralized the Persians.

  • Siege of TyreAlexander siege the city in 332 BCAfter defeating them he killed all military age man and sold the women and children into slavery.

  • Cont.Battle of Guagamela 331 BC Northern Iraq.A Last Stand for the Persians.Alexander out maneuvered Darius and again forced him to flee.

  • On To PersiaConquered Susa and used Royal Road to get to Persepolis.Conquered city and looted it. Stayed for five months and burned it down possible accident, possible purpose.Darius was captured by Bassus, his satrap, and later murdered and proclaimed himself ruler.Alexander mad, chased him down and killed him.

  • Cont. Attacks India, forces the Battle of Hydaspes against Punjabi ruler Porus.Despite larger manpower, Alexander faces war elephants. Eventually wins because of better strategy.Buchaphalus dies in this battle

  • Alexander Returns to BabylonReturns because men are wearyDies among many suspicions via the flu. Probably brought on by alcoholism.

  • What Happened to Alexanders Empire?Arguing among Alexanders Generals led to wars and a split of the Empire.Four main Dynasties developed: Ptolemic in Egypt, Antigonids in Macedonia, Seleucids in Western Asia, and later the Pergamum in Asia Minor.These groups fought with each other constantly and eventually weakened each other.

  • Impact of Hellenistic CultureImpacted culture throughout the development of Western culture.Focused on arts, architecture, math, and sciences.Example The mythic Colossus of Rhodes

  • ImpactEstablished states that mirrored Greek States all through Asia and Eastern Europe.Unified areas through Greek culture, art, and architecture. Upper class tried to create a unified empire while still preserving local traditions.Koine becomes shared language.

  • Alexandria

    Library at Alexandria was a marvel of the ancient world.The lighthouse (seen to the right) was one of the 7 wonders of the Ancient World.

  • AlexandriaUnrivaled city of the world at that time.Founded by Alexander with between 300,000 and 500,000 residents during Hellenistic Age.Common Currency and tradeGreek and Hebrew began to merge idealsHellenization

  • PhilosophyEpicurus - founded a school in the Sophist tradition, but focused on pulling away from civic life.Wise individuals would avoid the conflict of politics, wealth, power, or fame.Try to live justly.World View that atomism existed and therefore Gods could not influence humans.Moderation, prudence, friends.

  • Philosophy ContZeno Started StoicismEmphasized a world communityIndividual strength the answer Universe contained a Divine Reason (Logos) which became a universal force (kind of like Daoism)Every person had the Logos implanted into their soul and it guided their virtuous decisions.Creation of Natural Law to explain this and created a universal moral obligation.

  • Philosophy ContSkepticism nothing can be known with certainty, therefore suspending judgment calms the mind. All ideas are hypothesis, even math and science.Cynicism extreme individualists who lived ascetic lives to deny themselves. Wanted to harden self against misfortune

  • MathArchimedes establishes PiArchimedes principle discovered explained how ships stayed buoyant using levers and pulleys to demonstrate hydrostatics.

  • Math and ScienceEuclid wrote The Elements which provided a good deal of information on Geometry.Ptolomy theorized about a geocentric universe.Influenced Aristotle.

  • Math and ScienceHippocrates became the first to establish medicine as a practiced science.Hippocratic oathGalen focused on herbal remedies to assist people.