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    UC-NRLF

    7DD

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    BAYONET EXERCISEWEST & JOIIN^fON Publishers,

    llo >Iain Streel,

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    SKIRMISHERS' DRILL

    BAYONET EXERCISE(AS NOW USED IN THE FRENCH ARMY),

    SUGGESTIONS FOR THE SOLDIER IN ACTUAL CONFLICT.

    COMPILED AND TRANSLATED

    FOR THE USE OF THE VOLUNTEERS OF THE STATE OF VIRGINIA AND THE SOUTH,

    R. MILTON QARY,LT? COL. PROV. ARMY VA.

    " The bayonet is the weapon of the brave.'

    RICHMOND, VA:

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    Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, byWEST & JOHNSTON,

    In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Confederate States for theEastern District of Virginia.

    H. Y'YMCE,

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    INTRODUCTION.

    The accompanying pages have been compiled and trans-lated by the undersigned for the purpose of supplyingwhat he believes an important want to the volunteers ofthe South.

    The self-reliance and personal courage so universal withthe people of our country will render them equal to anyothers in the world, in the capacity of light troops, pro-vided they are properly trained.This little volume embraces the deployments, rallies,and assemblies of a company of skirmishers, and the drillof the bayonet and sabre-bayonet now in use in the Frencharmy, with such suggestions to the soldier in actualconflict as are given by French military writers. Thosesuggestions, and the exercise for the bayonet, have beentaken from the official books of instruction of that mostmilitary of all nations ; and the instruction for the move-ments of skirmishers has been taken from the system oftactics prepared by Col. Hardee, late U: S. A. The valueof the bayonet exercise is not a matter of speculation.Its practicability is no longer an open question ; it hasbeen brought to its present actual efficiency through asuccession of trials, all of them improved by practice,first on the drill ground, and then on the battle-field.

    It is absolutely necessary for light infantry. If at-tacked by cavalry, when deployed as skirmishers, theymust rely mainly upon their bayonets. It is important

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    4 INTRODUCTION.the

    originand

    progressof such instruction in the French

    service.In 1828, the Superior Council of War of France hadunder discussion the question of abolishing the light infan-

    try ; when, instead of doing away with it, a new impetuswas given towards promoting its efficiency. After variousessays, the formation of a special corps was resolved on,in 1838. The first battalion organized answered so wellits purpose, that in 1840 ten battalions of twelve hundredand fifty-nine men each were formed. These are the cele-brated "Chasseurs de Vincennes" and "Zouaves" whichare now fourfold their original numbers. The improve-ments made from time to time have culminated in theadoption of the skirmishers' drill, rifled arms, the sabre-bayonet, and the use of the bayonet according to theprinciples of fencing, as herein prescribed. The resultsobtained have been even beyond expectation. From thattime the French began to sweep before them the fearlessArabs in Algeria, in spite of their almost fabulous con-tempt of danger, and excellence in horsemanship.The Russian infantry in the Crimea, and the Austrianinfantry in Lombardy, both equal to any other infantryof the line in the world, each in turn, were over-matchedand defeated by the French troops trained in this drill.It will be recollected that the Emperor of the French, atthe opening of the campaign in Lombardy, after hislanding at Genoa, issued a short and telling proclamationto his soldiers

    ;in it he reminds them that, after all,"they had to rely on their bayonets for the victory -" and

    this is so much the more significant, that it fell from thelips of one who had endowed his army with the improvedMinie rifle, and with those 'rifled guns of his own inveo-tion/which made such havoc amongst the Austrian cavalryat Solferino., and were then without rivals in the field,since the Armstrong gun of the English was not com-pleted, and was only tried in actual service in the lateChina war.

    Notwithstanding all those advantages, Louis Napoleon

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    INTRODUCTION. 5

    practical chieftain, the Russian General, Souwarrow, whoused to say, in his picturesque language, " The bullet isfoolish; the bayonet alone is wise/'These details have been entered into in order that itmay be well understood that the drill which this book isintended to introduce to the volunteers of the State andof the South, is not an unimportant work of fancy, con-trived for amusement; but, on the contrary, is the fruitof time and experience, rendered into a practical form bymilitary men, who all acknowledge it to be one of themost powerful agencies of modern warfare.This book is, therefore, nothing but a translation ; theplates being fac-similes of those obtained from Paris ;and the only merit which is claimed for it is, that it ren-ders, in our language, the latest and most approved instruc-tion for the use of the bayonet, in connection with theskirmishers' drill, in a convenient form, and for smallcost. The skirmishers' drill and the bayonet drill wereintended by their inventors to go together. The one isincomplete in the absence of the other. As bearing uponthe skirmishers' drill, we will indulge ourselves with anextract from a very remarkable article published in the" Moniteur de I'Armee" in 1851, by a captain of thestaff, DuCasse. He says : "It was a noble and admirableidea, that of connecting together four men, neighbors toeach other in the ranks, under the name of comrades inbattle, and to tell them, ' Every one of you is bound forthe whole, and upon each devolves the care of preservingthe life of the three others/ No measure more apt tofoster that noble and brotherly feeling, which in the armyis called esprit de corps, could have been imagined. Theidea of comrades in battle, acting in groups for self-de-fence, forming in the plain to resist cavalry, as manylittle squares, each element of which is ready to fight tothe death in order to protect the life of his brothers inarms, is one of the most successful among those broughtforth in the organization of the ' Chasseurs-a-pied. J"

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    6 INTRODUCTION.The ordinance made for them has provided for it ; to theregular manual of arms have been added volts, demi-volts,bayonet-fencing, the art of attacking cavalry and resistingtheir attacks. In short, the service of the skirmishershas been so extended as to become an habitual, not anaccidental service ; and the men have been enabled tofight in that order the whole day, without rallying uponthe platoon or battalion, cases of absolute necessity beingexcepted."By the ordinance of July 22, 1845, the skirmishers'drill and bayonet exercise were restricted to the " Chas-seurs;" but by a ministerial decree of the 7th of April,1851, they were extended to all of the infantry of theFrench army. The drill which is offered to the volun-teers of the South in this book is that now in use by theFrench infantry as well as the " Chasseurs/'' and a por-tion of it was adopted as late as 1858.The undersigned begs to be indulged in saying that heputs forth this little work with no desire to make money.His object is to place within reach of his fellow-volunteersvaluable and important material, in the hope that therebyour efficiency as soldiers may be promoted.He acknowledges the very valuable assistance of Mons.C. F. Pardigon, a native of Paris (at present attached tothe Wise Legion, and a very devoted and true soldier ofthe Old Dominion), rendered him in getting up and trans-lating the book. K. M. C.RICHMOND, VA., July, 1861.

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    INSTRUCTION FOR SKIRMISHERS,ARTICLE FIRST.

    DEPLOYMENTS.1. A company may be deployed as skirmishers in two

    ways : forward, and by the flank.2. The deployment forward will be adopted when the

    company is behind the line on which it is to be establish-ed as skirmishers; it will be deployed by the flank, whenit finds itself already on that line.

    3. Whenever a company is to be deployed as skirmish-ers, it will be divided into two platoons, and each platoonwill be subdivided into two sections ; the comrades inbattle, forming groups of four men, will be careful toknow and to sustain each other. The captain willassure himself that the files in the centre of each platoonand section are designated.

    4. A company may be deployed as skirmishers on itsright, left, or centre file, or on any other named file what-soever. In this manner, skirmishers may be thrown for-ward with the greatest possible rapidity on any groundthey may be required to occupy.

    5. A chain of skirmishers ought generally to preservetheir alignment, but no advantages which the ground maypresent should be sacrificed to attain this regularity.

    6. The interval between skirmishers depends on theextent of ground to be covered; but in general, it is notproper that the groups of four men should be removedmore than forty paces from each other. The habitualdistance between men of the same group, in open grounds,will be five paces; in no case will they lose sight of eachother.

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    DEPLOYMENTS.11. The left guide having reached the po