The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. I. Introduction A. The appendicular skeleton...
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The Skeletal System:The Appendicular Skeleton
I. IntroductionA. The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the upper and lower extremities and the shoulder and hip girdles.
I. IntroductionB. The appendicular skeleton functions primarily to facilitate movement.
II. Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdleThe pectoral girdle attaches the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton.
II. Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle1. The clavicle or collar bone lies horizontally in the superior and anterior part of the thorax and articulates with the sternum and the scapula.
II. Pectoral Girdle ContinueThe clavicle, one of the most frequently broken bones in the body
II. Pectoral Girdle Continue2. The scapula or shoulder blade articulates with the clavicle and the humerus.
II. Pectoral Girdle Continue The scapulae is held in place posteriorly only by complex shoulder and back musculature.
III. Upper LimbEach upper limb consists of 30 bones including the humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
III. Upper Limb1. The humerus is the longest and largest bone of the upper limb.
III. Upper Limb It articulates proximally with the scapula at the glenohumeral joint, and distally at the elbow with both the radius and ulna.
III. Upper Limb Continue2. The ulna is located on the medial aspect of the foramen.
III. Upper Limb Continue3. The radius is located on the lateral aspect (thumb side) of the foramen.
III. Upper Limb Continue Falling on an outstretched arm may create a Colles fracture, a fracture near the distal end.
Upper Limb ContinueThe radius and ulna articulate with the humerus at the elbow joint, with each other, and with three carpal bones.
Upper Limb Continue4. Carpals, Metacarpal, Phalanges
Upper Limb Continue The eight carpal bones, bound together by ligaments, comprise the wrist.
Upper Limb Continue Because of the scant blood supply to the scaphoid, scaphoid fractures may be very slow to heal.
III. Upper Limb ContinueFive metacarpal bones are contained in the palm of each hand.
III. Upper Limb Continue Each hand contains 14 phalnges, three in each finger and two in in each thumb.
IV. Pelvic GirdleThe pelvic (hip) girdle consists of two hipbones (coxal bones) on which the weight of the body is carried.
IV. Pelvic GirdleEach hipbone is composed of three separate bones at birth: Iliumpubisischium.
IV. Pelvic GirdleThese bones eventually fuse at a depression called the acetabulum, which forms the socket for the hip joint.
IV. Pelvic GirdleThe ilium is the largest and articulates (fuses) with the ischium and pubis.
IV. Pelvic Girdle The ischium is the inferior, posterior portion of the hip bone.
IV. Pelvic GirdleThe pubis is the anterior and inferior part of the hip bone.
IV. Pelvic Girdle ContinueB. True or False Pelves1. Together with the sacrum and coccyx, the two hipbones form the pelvis.
IV. Pelvic Girdle Continue2. The greater (false) and lesser (true) pelvis are anatomicaly separated by a plane at the pelvic brim.
V. Comparison of Male and FemaleFemale and male pelvic girdles differences are primarily related to the need for a larger outlet in females to facilitate childbirth.
V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesMale bones are larger and heavier than those of the female
V. Comparison of Female and Male Pelves Males joint surfaces also tend to be larger.
V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesMuscle attachment points are more well-defined in the bones of a male than of a female due to the larger size of the muscles in males.
V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesIliac bones of male more vertical
V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesPelvic brim in male is heart shaped due to prominence of the sacral promontary
V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesPelvic brim more oval in female
V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesPubic arch in male is under 90 degrees
V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesPubic arch in females over 90 degrees
VI. Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic GirdlesThe pectoral girdle does not directly articulate with the vertebral column; the pelvic girdle does.
VI. Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles2. The pectoral girdle sockets are shallow and maximize movement
VI. Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles3. Sockets of the pelvic girdle are deeper and allow less movement.
VI. Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles4. The structure of the pectoral girdle offers more movement than strength
VI. Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles5. The pelvic girdle, more strength than movement.
VII. Lower LimbEach lower extremity is composed of 30 bones, including the femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.
FemurThe femur or thighbone is the largest, heaviest, and strongest bone of the body.
FemurIt articulates with the hip bone and the tibia.
Patella The patella or kneecap is a sesamoid bone located anterior to the knee joint
PatellaProtects the knee joint
Patellofemoral stress syndromeCommon knee problem in runners
Patellofemoral stress syndromeDuring normal flexion and extension of the knee, the patella tracks up and down in the patellar groove of the femur
Patellofemoral stress syndrome In this syndrome the patella also tracks laterally, increasing the pressure on the cartilage coating the underside of the patella.
Tibia The tibia or shinbone is the larger, medial, weight-bearing bone of the leg.
Fibula The fibula is parallel and lateral to the tibia.
Tarsals Seven tarsal bones constitute the ankle
Metatarsals Five metatarsal bones are contained in the foot.
Phalanges Fourteen bones in each foot.
Arches of the footThe bones of the foot are arranged in two nonrigid arches that enable the foot to support the weight of the body
Arches of the foot Provide an ideal distribution of body weight over the hard and soft tissues
Arches of the foot Provide leverage while walking.
Arches of the foot The longitudinal arch has a medial and lateral component.
Arches of the foot The transverse arch is perpendicular to these arches.
VII. Lower Limb Continue2. As a person ages, they tend to get flattening of the longitudinal arches, causing the foot to elongate.
Hip FracturesA break in the bones associated with the hip joint.
Hip FracturesOften require surgical treatment
Hallux Called a bunion
Hallux The proximal phalanx of the great toe deviates laterally
HalluxThe first metatarsal deviates medially.