The Inner Niger Delta Project: Environmental, social and

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    28-Feb-2022
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of The Inner Niger Delta Project: Environmental, social and

The Inner Niger Delta Project: Environmental, social and economic consequences of dredging the Lower Niger River on the communitiesThe Inner Niger Delta Project: The Inner Niger Delta Project: Environmental, social and economic Environmental, social and economic consequences of dredging the Lower consequences of dredging the Lower
Niger River on the communitiesNiger River on the communities
YemiYemi AkegbejoAkegbejo--SamsonsSamsons University of AgricultureUniversity of Agriculture
Department of Aquaculture & Fisheries Department of Aquaculture & Fisheries ManagementManagement
PMB 2240, PMB 2240, AbeokutaAbeokuta, Nigeria, Nigeria Email: [email protected]: [email protected]
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
AbstractAbstract A proposed action by the Federal A proposed action by the Federal
Government of Nigeria to dredge a yearGovernment of Nigeria to dredge a year--round round navigation channel in the Lower Niger River navigation channel in the Lower Niger River some 573 kilometers upstream from some 573 kilometers upstream from WarriWarri to to BaroBaro had been discussed and underway. The had been discussed and underway. The purpose of the project is to promote the purpose of the project is to promote the economic development of the country, economic development of the country, especially Northern Nigeria. A number of especially Northern Nigeria. A number of "concerned communities" along the proposed "concerned communities" along the proposed waterway and throughout the Niger Delta have waterway and throughout the Niger Delta have voiced concerns about its potential voiced concerns about its potential environmental, social, and economic impacts. environmental, social, and economic impacts.
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
Abstract Abstract ……....contdcontd
This paper focuses on the social implication of This paper focuses on the social implication of the project and the consequences on the the project and the consequences on the biological communities of this oil rich delta biological communities of this oil rich delta ecosystem. The impact of the project on the ecosystem. The impact of the project on the environmental flow of the river regime is further environmental flow of the river regime is further discussed. It concludes by recommending discussed. It concludes by recommending sustainable dredging practices for the area. sustainable dredging practices for the area.
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
IntroductionIntroduction There are three major drainage systems in Nigeria:There are three major drainage systems in Nigeria:
the River of Niger and the River of Niger and BenueBenue, , coastal andcoastal and Lake Chad. Lake Chad.
The total area of inland water bodies is estimated to be The total area of inland water bodies is estimated to be slightly over 12 million ha. slightly over 12 million ha.
Although inland fisheries resources are rich, precise Although inland fisheries resources are rich, precise knowledge of the state of the resources is lacking. knowledge of the state of the resources is lacking.
Nigeria is a leading fishNigeria is a leading fish--producing country, with 366 000 t producing country, with 366 000 t per annum after Senegal and Ghana. It also has an per annum after Senegal and Ghana. It also has an important marine resource potential of 270 000 t. important marine resource potential of 270 000 t.
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
Introduction Introduction contdcontd…………..
Nigeria has the highest concentration in Africa Nigeria has the highest concentration in Africa of of artisanalartisanal marine fishermen (272 000 in 1997) marine fishermen (272 000 in 1997) and is a major source of employment. In and is a major source of employment. In addition to the fulladdition to the full--time operators, there are also time operators, there are also many partmany part--time fishermen that cultivate the land time fishermen that cultivate the land or embark on nonor embark on non--fishing incomefishing income--generating generating activities outside the fishing season.activities outside the fishing season.
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The Niger DeltaThe Niger Delta a coastal region of global environmental and a coastal region of global environmental and economic significanceeconomic significance one of the worldone of the world’’s largest wetlandss largest wetlands the worldthe world’’s largest mangrove forests largest mangrove forest AfricaAfrica’’s largest and the worlds largest and the world’’s third largest s third largest delta delta West and Central AfricaWest and Central Africa’’s most extensive s most extensive freshwater swamp forest freshwater swamp forest
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The Niger Delta The Niger Delta ……..contdcontd a mosaic of diverse and sensitive ecosystems a mosaic of diverse and sensitive ecosystems that traverse four vegetation zonesthat traverse four vegetation zones NigeriaNigeria’’s last remaining pristine rain forests s last remaining pristine rain forests one of the continentone of the continent’’s few remaining habitats of s few remaining habitats of unique biological species unique biological species one of the worldone of the world’’s major hydrocarbon s major hydrocarbon provincesprovinces
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The location and the peopleThe location and the people
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
Africa Nigeria
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The ScenarioThe Scenario The Niger and Benue Rivers are to be dredged The Niger and Benue Rivers are to be dredged in order to create water waysin order to create water ways
butbut Dredging and dredging activities are known to Dredging and dredging activities are known to be accompanied by ecological impacts including be accompanied by ecological impacts including damage and often irreparable consequences to damage and often irreparable consequences to the flora and fauna, coastal topography and the flora and fauna, coastal topography and impairment of water quality (impairment of water quality (OhimainOhimain, 2004)., 2004).
Dredging in sensitive ecosystems may have Dredging in sensitive ecosystems may have serious impacts if not well managed. serious impacts if not well managed.
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The scenario The scenario contdcontd………… Many dredging projects (oil and gas) have been Many dredging projects (oil and gas) have been carried out in the Niger Delta region for many carried out in the Niger Delta region for many years, most of which had left serious years, most of which had left serious implications unsolved in the entire area. Among implications unsolved in the entire area. Among these are these are EscravosEscravos, , UgborodoUgborodo, Bonny etc., Bonny etc. In this paper, the impacts of the proposed In this paper, the impacts of the proposed dredging of the Rivers Niger and Benue in dredging of the Rivers Niger and Benue in relation to topography, land use, hydrology, fish relation to topography, land use, hydrology, fish resources and accumulated loss of wetlands in resources and accumulated loss of wetlands in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.the Niger Delta of Nigeria.
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
#
#
# #
###
#
##
# ##
#
#
# Major settlements.
The problemThe problem
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
Why this discussion?Why this discussion?
Sometime before February 1999, the (then) Petroleum Trust Fund (now the Ecological Fund) initiated a project to dredge and maintain a navigation channel of about 573 km in the Lower Niger River from Baro to Warri.
The channel would be 100 m wide, with a minimum average depth of 2.5 m, for year-round shipping.
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
Why this discussion?...Why this discussion?...contdcontd The initial dredging operation would involve the removal and disposal of some 16 million cubic meters of dredge spoil (material).
The scope of the dredging contract, which was awarded in advance of draft EIA report preparation, stated that the Federal Government of Nigeria planned to:
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
Why this discussionWhy this discussion……contdcontd
(a) dredge about 573 km of the Lower River Niger Waterway, from Warri to Baro;
(b) develop and/or complete inland ports at Idah, Lokoja, Baro and Onitsha;
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
(c) develop river training works; (d) plan and initiate recurrent (maintenance) dredging, on completion of the capital dredging.
While the development of inland waterways transport [IWT] has proven to be successful in many countries world-wide, there is a real need to study how and in what way IWT can benefit the Nigerian economy in order to justify any investments in this sector.
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
#
#
# #
###
#
##
# ##
#
#
# Major settlements.
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The general concern centers on: (a)The Master plan (b) The Construction (c) The Effects on (i) the environment
(ii) the people (iii) the resources.
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
1. Effects on the environment1. Effects on the environment Loss of ecosystems or ecotonesLoss of ecosystems or ecotones Loss in biodiversity ?Loss in biodiversity ?
i.e i.e species diversity, number, distribution, species diversity, number, distribution, abundanceabundance Loss of ecosystem function and habitats Loss of ecosystem function and habitats Loss of potential resources e.g. drug finding Loss of potential resources e.g. drug finding Loss of economic valueLoss of economic value Modification effects on the potentials of the Modification effects on the potentials of the sysytemsysytem
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
Effects on the environmentEffects on the environment……....contdcontd
Modification of stream flowsModification of stream flows
Pollution of existing water suppliesPollution of existing water supplies
Changes in the water tableChanges in the water table
Chemical pollution from vesselsChemical pollution from vessels
Increase in solid wastes and suspended Increase in solid wastes and suspended solids Spillssolids Spills
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
2. Effects on the people2. Effects on the people Who are these people in question?Who are these people in question?
Fishers, processors, traders and the growing Fishers, processors, traders and the growing number of fish farmers form an extensive and number of fish farmers form an extensive and growing group of entrepreneurs in this area, they growing group of entrepreneurs in this area, they serve as agents of economic development in serve as agents of economic development in otherwise remote areas. If the right steps are taken otherwise remote areas. If the right steps are taken and continuing appropriate support is provided, and continuing appropriate support is provided, their energy can be their energy can be galvanisedgalvanised by improving by improving access to new technologies, new credit sources and access to new technologies, new credit sources and new markets. The dredging is likely going to new markets. The dredging is likely going to impact negatively on this group of peopleimpact negatively on this group of people
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
On the farming communitiesOn the farming communities
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
Dredging this river will cause setbacks to fisherfolks
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The peculiar people of the Niger The peculiar people of the Niger DeltaDelta
IjawsIjaws, , UrhobosUrhobos, , ItsekiriItsekiri, , IsokosIsokos Coastal farmersCoastal farmers River bank farmers and sedimentRiver bank farmers and sediment--laded villagersladed villagers Mangrove depended local population:Mangrove depended local population:
for for raphiaraphia palms used for house constructionpalms used for house construction for mangrove shell fish and other dominant fish for mangrove shell fish and other dominant fish
sppspp for medicinal plants and herbsfor medicinal plants and herbs for age long traditional usesfor age long traditional uses
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
3. Effects on the resources3. Effects on the resources
Resource group 1Resource group 1 The NonThe Non--renewable renewable
1. Fishing grounds1. Fishing grounds
2. Adjacent land for farming2. Adjacent land for farming
3. Ancient Heritage and Shrines3. Ancient Heritage and Shrines
4. Drinking water4. Drinking water
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
3. Effects on the resources3. Effects on the resources……contdcontd
The NonThe Non--renewablerenewable 5. The Inherited 5. The Inherited landmarks landmarks
6. Recreation grounds and cherished canals6. Recreation grounds and cherished canals
[ the figures that follow will express the vivid [ the figures that follow will express the vivid feelings]feelings]
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The beauty of some of the scenesThe beauty of some of the scenes
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
Rhizophora mucarata
Environmental resourcesEnvironmental resources
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The rural populace here depend on this waterThe rural populace here depend on this water
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The dredging is a major threat to mangrove Ecosystem
Cutting of the mangrove Plants
for timber
3. Effects on the resources3. Effects on the resources…… contdcontd
Resource group 2Resource group 2 The Renewable resourcesThe Renewable resources
The finThe fin--fish resourcesfish resources
The River mammalsThe River mammals
The ShellfishThe Shellfish-- Shrimps and PrawnsShrimps and Prawns
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
The Way outThe Way out
Initiating a well conceived Environmental Initiating a well conceived Environmental Impact Assessment of the projectImpact Assessment of the project
Putting in place a workable Mitigation Putting in place a workable Mitigation optionsoptions
Enforcement of well prepared management Enforcement of well prepared management plan for the entire water courseplan for the entire water course
Political will to live upPolitical will to live up--toto--promisepromise
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
FOR LISTENING
THANKTHANK YOUYOU
10th International Riversymposium & Environmental Flows conference, Brisbane, Australia 2-6 Sept, 2007
Humans are always cutting the tree Humans are always cutting the tree of life !!!of life !!!
The Inner Niger Delta Project: Environmental, social and economic consequences of dredging the Lower Niger River on the commun
Abstract
The Scenario
On the farming communities
The peculiar people of the Niger Delta
3. Effects on the resources
3. Effects on the resources…contd
The beauty of some of the scenes
Environmental resources
3. Effects on the resources… contd
The Way out