The Human Skeleton

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The Human Skeleton. Axial Skeleton. Axial Skeleton. Skull. Sternum. Ribs. VertebralColumn. Skull. Divided into two parts: a) Calvaria b) Face . a) Calvaria. Parietal Bone. Frontal Bone. Occipital Bone. Temporal Bone. Calvaria Cont. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of The Human Skeleton

Anatomy I

Sport Books Publisher1The Human Skeleton

Sport Books Publisher2Axial SkeletonSport Books Publisher3

SkullSternumRibsVertebralColumnAxial SkeletonSport Books Publisher4SkullDivided into two parts:

a) Calvaria

b) Face Sport Books Publisher5

a) CalvariaFrontal BoneParietal BoneTemporal BoneOccipital BoneSport Books Publisher6Calvaria Cont.May be fractured in blows to the skull (e.g., in hockey, being checked and hitting the skull on the ice)

Temporal bone:more fragile of the calvaria bones overlies one of the major blood vessels if fractured and displaced internally = medical emergency (picture)

Sport Books Publisher7b) Facial Bones

Lacrimal BoneNasal BoneMaxilla BoneMandible BoneZygomatic BoneSport Books Publisher8Facial Bones ContdOften broken in contact sports due to rough impactSome fractures across the maxilla (upper jaw) can leave the lower face separated from the upper face

Sport Books Publisher9Vertebral Column

Sacrum (mid-line region of buttocks)Coccyx (4 or 5 fused vertebrae of the tail bone)7 Cervical Vertebrae (of the neck)12 Thoracic Vertebrae (of the chest)5 Lumbar Vertebrae (of the lower back)

Lumbar vertebra, lateral viewLumbar vertebra, superior viewSport Books Publisher10Vertebral ColumnVertebrae are arranged in a cylindrical column interspersed with fibrocartilaginous (intervertebral) discsFunction:provides a strong and flexible support for the body and the ability to keep the body erectthe point of attachment for the muscles of the back. protect the spinal cord and nervesabsorbs shock through the intervertebral discs without causing damage to other vertebrae Sport Books Publisher11RibsTwelve pairs Made up of :bonecartilage which strengthen the chest cage and permit it to expand.Curved and slightly twisted making it ideal to protect the chest area

Sport Books Publisher12Ribs ContdAll 12 pairs of ribs articulate with the twelve thoracic vertebrae posteriorlyClassified into three groups based on anterior attachment: (picture)true ribs 1-7attach to both the vertebrae and the sternumfalse ribs 8-10 attach only to the sternum indirectly, through 7th ribfloating ribs11 and 12 only attach to the vertebral column

Sport Books Publisher13

The RibsManubriumSternal BodyXiphoid ProcessCostal CartilagesTrue Ribs (1-7)False Ribs (8-10)Floating Ribs (11-12)Sport Books Publisher14

SternumMid-line breast bone The clavicles and ribs one to seven articulate with the sternum Sternum comprised of the manubrium, sternal body and xiphoid processSport Books Publisher15Appendicular SkeletonSport Books Publisher16Consists of:

1. The pectoral gridle (chest)2. Pelvic girdle (hip)3. The upper limbs 4. The lower limbs Appendicular skeletonSport Books Publisher171.Pectoral GirdleConsists of: Scapula (shoulder blade) Clavicle (collar bone)

Allows the upper limb great mobilityThe sternoclavicular joint is the only point of attachment between the axial skeleton and the pectoral girdleScapulaClavicleSport Books Publisher182. Pelvic GirdleFormed by pair of os coxae (hip bones) supports the bladder and abdominal contentsAttachment:Posteriorly join with the sacrum Anteriorly - join to each other anteriorlyLaterally join to the head of thigh bone through a cup-shaped acetabulum

Sport Books Publisher193. Upper Limb

HumerusThe arm bone shoulder to elbowRadius and UlnaThe forearm boneselbow to wristthe radius being located on the thumb side of the handwhen you pronate the forearm, the radius is actually crossing over the ulna - try it yourself

HumerusUlnaRadiusSport Books Publisher20Upper Limb Cont.

CarpalsPhalangesMetacarpalsProximal PhalanxMiddle PhalanxDistal PhalanxSport Books Publisher214. Lower LimbFemur thigh bone from hip to kneePatella knee capsesamoid bone in the tendon of the quadriceps muscles (thigh)

FemurPatellaSport Books Publisher22Lower Limb ContdTibia and Fibulaleg bonesFrom knee to ankleTibia is medial and fibula is lateral

Medial malleolus and Lateral malleolusThe distal ends of the tibia and fibula, respectivelycommonly referred to as the "ankle bones"can be easily palpated

FibulaTibiaLat. malleolusMed. malleolusSport Books Publisher23Lower Limb ContdTarsalsankle bonescalcaneus or the heel bonetalus Metatarsals 5 bones of the foot unite with the toesPhalangestoe bonesthree per toe except the big toe - proximal, middle and distal