HUMAN SKELETON AND LOCOMOTION

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  • Support- framework that supports body and cradles its soft organsProtection- for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brainMovement- bones act as levers for muscles Mineral storage- calcium & phosphateBlood cell formation- hematopoiesis

  • Long Bones- metacarples, metatarsals, phelangies, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibulaShort Bones- carpals, tarsalsFlat Bones- rib, scapula, skull, sternumIrregular Bones- vertebrae, some facial bonesSesamoid- patella

  • DistalepiphysisProximal epiphysisdiaphysisyellow marrowepiphyseal lineperiosteumcompact bonespongy boneEndosteumhyaline cartilageSharpeys fibers

  • Posterior View

  • Warm and moisten airLighten the skullEnhance voice resonance Frontal SinusEthmoid SinusSphenoid SinusMaxillary Sinus

  • Cervical Vertebrae (7)Thoracic Vertebrae (12)Lumbar Vertberae (5)SacrumCoccyxThe Vertebral Column

  • Cervical Vertebrae

  • Sternum

    True Ribs (7)

    False Ribs (3)

    Floating Ribs (2)The Thoracic Cage

  • Sacrum & Coccyx

  • Bones of the Pectoral Girdle

  • HumerusUlnaRadius8 Carpals14 Phalanges5 Metacarpals

  • Pelvis

  • IschiumIliumAcetabulumPubisIschiumObturator foramenPelvis (lateral view)

  • Male Pelvic Girdle Female Pelvic Girdle

  • Patella

    The Lower Limb (Legs)FemurTibiaFibula5 Metatarsals14 Phalanges7 Tarsals

  • metatarsalsphelangiestarsalsmetatarsalsphelangiestarsals

  • Immovable Joints (synarthrosis)

  • Slightly Movable Joint (ampharthrosis)

  • (diarthrosis)- freely moveable

  • AbductionExtensionRotationFlexionAdductionSynovial Joint Movement

  • 275 bones12 weeks (6-9 inches long)

  • cartilagecalcified cartilageboneepiphyseal plateepiphyseal lineEndochondral Ossification2o ossification centerFetus: 1st 2 monthsAdultChildhoodJust before birth

  • OsteoblastOsteocyteOsteoclastEats boneBuilds new boneMature bone cell

  • Bone Repair:Electrical stimulation of the fracture site:Increases speed and completeness of healingThe e- stimulation inhibits PTH and slow osteoclasts down from reabsorbing bone2. Ultrasound treatment:Daily treatments reduce healing time of broken bones by 25-35%3. Free vascular fibular graft technique:Transplant fibula in armGives good blood supply not available in other treatments4. Bone substitutes:Crushed bone from cadaver- but risk of HIV and hepatitisSea bone- coralArtificial bone- ceramic

  • hematomacallusbony callusbone remodeling

  • Diseases of the Skeletal System:Osteoporosis- bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit; bones become lighter and fracture easier

    Factors: age, gender (more in women)estrogen and testosterone decreaseinsufficient exercise (or too much)diet poor in Ca++ and proteinabnormal vitamin D receptorssmoking

  • Osteoporosis

  • Rickets- vitamin D deficiencyOsteomalacia- soft bones, inadequate mineralization in bones, lack of vitamin DPagets Disease- spotty weakening in the bones, excessive and abnormal bone remodelingRheumatoid arthritis- autoimmune reactionDiseases of the Skeletal System:

  • *OsteoblastsOsteoblasts are responsible for building new bone and lie at the centre of bone physiology. Their functions include the synthesis of collagen and the control of mineralisation. OsteoclastsOsteoclasts are specialised cells that resorb bone. They work by sealing off an area of bone surface then, when activated, they pump out hydrogen ions to produce a very acid environment, which dissolves the hydroxyapatite. OsteocytesBone adapts to applied forces by growing stronger in order to withstand them; it is known that exercise can help to improve bone strength. Osteocytes are thought to be part of the cellular feed-back mechanism which directs bone to form in the places where it is most needed. They lie within mineralised bone and it is thought that they may detect mechanical deformation and mediate the response of the osteoblasts.