The Skeleton Ch. 7. 206 bones in human body 206 bones in human body Skeleton is divided into: Axial...

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Transcript of The Skeleton Ch. 7. 206 bones in human body 206 bones in human body Skeleton is divided into: Axial...

  • Slide 1
  • The Skeleton Ch. 7
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  • 206 bones in human body 206 bones in human body Skeleton is divided into: Axial skeleton (80) - Skull, Thoracic Cage, and Vertebral Column Appendicular skeleton (126) - Arms, Legs, Pectoral Girdle, and Pelvic Girdle
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  • Shape: Shape: Long bones: limbs Short bones: carpals and tarsals - sesamoid short bone that forms in a tendon Flat bones: cranium, sternum and scapula - two layers of compact with spongy bone in between (diploe) Irregular bones: vertebrae
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  • Bony landmarks: Bony landmarks: Depression: (blood vessels and nerves to pass) Fissure - narrow, slitlike opening Foramen - round or oval opening through the bone Fossa - shallow and may serve as an articular surface Sulcus/meatus/canal - canal-like passageway Sinus: cavity within a bone Groove - furrow
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  • Processes: Bony prominences (muscle and ligament attachment) Processes: Bony prominences (muscle and ligament attachment) Tuberosity - large rounded projection; may be roughened. Crest - narrow ridge of bone Trochanter - very large, blunt, irregulary shaped process (femur) Line - narrow ridges of bone; less prominent than crest Tubercle - small rounded projection Epicondyle - raised area above a condyle Spine - sharp, slender, often pointed
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  • Processes: form joints Processes: form joints Head - bony expansion carried on a narrow neck Facet - smooth and nearly flat articular surface Condyle - rounded articular projection Ramus - armlike bar of a bone
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  • Gross Anatomy of the human skeleton
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  • Axial Skeleton
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  • 1. Skull a. Cranial bones 1- frontal (a) sinus (b) supra-orbital ridge (c) supra-orbital foramen 1. Skull a. Cranial bones 1- frontal (a) sinus (b) supra-orbital ridge (c) supra-orbital foramen (d) coronal suture (between frontal and anterior border of parietals) (e) glabella
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  • 2- parietal 2- parietal (a) sagittal suture: b/w parietals (b) lambdoid suture: b/w posterior parietals and occipital bone (c) squamous suture: b/w parietals and squamous of temporal (a) sagittal suture: b/w parietals (b) lambdoid suture: b/w posterior parietals and occipital bone (c) squamous suture: b/w parietals and squamous of temporal (d) diploe (d) diploe 3- occipital (a) occipital condyles (b) foramen magnum (c) superior and inferior nuchal lines (d) external occipital protuberance (EOP) 3- occipital (a) occipital condyles (b) foramen magnum (c) superior and inferior nuchal lines (d) external occipital protuberance (EOP) (e) hypoglossal canal (XII: Hypoglossal) (e) hypoglossal canal (XII: Hypoglossal) (f) pharyngeal tubercle (f) pharyngeal tubercle (g) basion (g) basion (h) opisthion (h) opisthion (i) clivus (i) clivus (j) internal occipital protuberance (IOP) (j) internal occipital protuberance (IOP)
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  • 4- temporal (a) external acoustic (auditory) meatus (b) internal acoustic meatus (VIII: Vestibulocochlear) (c) styloid process (d) petrous portion (e) jugular foramen (IX:Glossphrayngeal) (c) styloid process (d) petrous portion (e) jugular foramen (IX:Glossphrayngeal) (X: Vagus) (XI: Accessory) (f) carotid canal (g) foramen lacerum (h) zygomatic process (f) carotid canal (g) foramen lacerum (h) zygomatic process (i) mastoid process (i) mastoid process (j) infratemporal fossa (j) infratemporal fossa (k) mandibular fossa (k) mandibular fossa (l) stylomastoid foramen (CN VII: Facial) (l) stylomastoid foramen (CN VII: Facial)
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  • 5- sphenoid (a) greater and lesser wings (b) pterygoid processes 5- sphenoid (a) greater and lesser wings (b) pterygoid processes - medial - lateral (c) anterior clinoid process (d) sella turcica (c) anterior clinoid process (d) sella turcica - dorsum sellae - posterior clinoid process - hypophyseal fossa (e) optic canal (CN II: Optic nerve) (f) superior orbital fissure - CN III, IV, VI (g) foramen ovale (CN V: Trigeminal) (g) foramen ovale (CN V: Trigeminal) (i) foramen spinosum (i) foramen spinosum (j) foramen rotundum (CN V: Trigeminal) (j) foramen rotundum (CN V: Trigeminal)
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  • 6- ethmoid (a) perpendicular plate (b) crista galli (c) cribriform (horizontal) plate - CN I (olfactory) (d) middle nasal concha (d) middle nasal concha b. Facial bones 1- nasal bones 2- lacrimal bones 1- nasal bones 2- lacrimal bones (a) lacrimal fossa 3- zygomatic bones (a) orbital plate (a) lacrimal fossa 3- zygomatic bones (a) orbital plate (b) frontal process (b) frontal process (c) temporal process (d) maxillary process (c) temporal process (d) maxillary process
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  • 4- maxilla (a) alveolar margin (b) infra-orbital foramen (c) palatine processes (d) incisive fossa (e) anterior nasal spine 5- palatine bones (a) greater palatine foramen (a) greater palatine foramen (b) choanae (posterior nares) (b) choanae (posterior nares)
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  • 6- mandible (a) ramus (b) condyle (c) angle (d) body (e) coronoid process (f) alveolar margin (g) mental foramen (h) mandibular foramen (h) mandibular foramen (i) lingula (i) lingula
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  • 7- vomer 8- inferior nasal concha c. Paranasal sinuses (1) frontal (2) ethmoid (3) sphenoid (4) maxillary
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  • 2. hyoid bone 2. hyoid bone (a) greater horn (b) lesser horn (b) lesser horn
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  • 3. ribs (12 pairs) 1-7: true ribs 8-10: false ribs 11,12: floating ribs a. head a. head b. neck b. neck c. tubercle c. tubercle d. body d. body e. costal cartilage e. costal cartilage 4. sternum a. manubrium b. jugular notch c. angle of Louis d. body e. xiphoid process f. clavicular notch
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  • Auditory ossicles (a) Malleus (hammer) (b) Incus (anvil) (c) Stapes (stirrup)
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  • vertebrae: a. (7) cervical - atlas & axis(C1 & C2) axis with dens (odontoid process) a. (7) cervical - atlas & axis(C1 & C2) axis with dens (odontoid process) C3-C5 b. (12) thoracic: T1-T12 c. (5) lumbar: L1-L5 d. sacrum (5-fused)-Ala e. coccyx (4-fused) d. sacrum (5-fused)-Ala e. coccyx (4-fused)
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  • C1: atlas - anterior arch with tubercle - posterior arch with tubercle - lateral mass - transverse process - transverse foramen (vertebral artery)
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  • C2: axis or epistropheus - odontoid or dens - transverse foramen - transverse ligament (atlas)
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  • ADI interval Atlanto dens interval
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  • Parts of a typical vertebrae: a- lamina b- pedicles c- centrum (body) c- centrum (body) d- spinous process e- superior and inferior articulating processes e- superior and inferior articulating processes f- vertebral foramen g- intervertebral foramen h- transverse processes i- mamillary processes (lumbar) j- costal facets j- costal facets
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  • Lumbar Spine
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  • Sacrum: 5 fused Sacrum: 5 fused a. sacral canal b. sacroiliac joint c. sacral foramen d. median sacral crest e. sacral hiatus f. sacral promontory g. apex h. ala a. sacral canal b. sacroiliac joint c. sacral foramen d. median sacral crest e. sacral hiatus f. sacral promontory g. apex h. ala Coccyx: 4 fused a. coccygeal cornu a. coccygeal cornu
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  • Appendicular skeleton
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  • B. APPENDICULAR SKELETON Bones of the pectoral Girdle 1- scapula (right or left) a. coracoid process b. acromion process c. spine d. supraspinous fossa e. infraspinous fossa f. glenoid fossa (cavity) g. supraglenoid tubercle h. subscapular fossa i. suprascapular notch j. vertebral (medial) border k. axillary (lateral) border l. inferior angle h. subscapular fossa i. suprascapular notch j. vertebral (medial) border k. axillary (lateral) border l. inferior angle
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  • Shoulder dislocation (skateboard injury)
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  • 2- Clavicle a. acromial extremity b. sternal extremity c. conoid tubercle
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  • Bones of upper extremity: arm and forearm 1- humerus (right or left) a. head b. neck: surgical and anatomical c. greater and lesser tubercle Bones of upper extremity: arm and forearm 1- humerus (right or left) a. head b. neck: surgical and anatomical c. greater and lesser tubercle d. intertubercular groove e. deltoid tuberosity f. medial and lateral epicondyles g. trochlea h. capitulum i. olecranon fossa j. coronoid fossa k. radial fossa d. intertubercular groove e. deltoid tuberosity f. medial and lateral epicondyles g. trochlea h. capitulum i. olecranon fossa j. coronoid fossa k. radial fossa l. radial groove l. radial groove
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  • 2- radius (right or left) a. head a. head b. ne