The future of suburbia

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The Future of Suburbia

The Future of SuburbiaRichard Krier, AICP, President Midwest Planning and Design ( Archer, PhD, Chair, Department of Cultural Studies and Comparative Literature ( Quick look back using the Twin Cities as a growth Example

Recasting suburban planning based on the incorporation differences, growth and change in local conditions, personal circumstances, diversifying interests in American and global society

Planning for the suburbia based on the paradigms that John is going to discuss

QuestionsJohn Archer 612-624-3830Cultural Studies & Comparative Lit Educational BackgroundPh.D.: Art History, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 1977. M.A.: Art History, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 1969. B.A.: Art History, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 1968. PublicationsArcher, John. Architecture and Suburbia: From English Villa to American Dream House, 1690-2000. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005. Archer, John. The Literature of British Domestic Architecture, 1715-1842. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985. Archer, John. "Suburban Aesthetics is Not an Oxymoron." In Andrew Blauvelt, ed., Worlds Away: New Suburban Landscapes (Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 2008), 129-146. Download Archer, John. "Learning from Social Theory of Space: Architecture and the Production of Self, Culture, and Society." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 64:4 (December 2005): 430-433. Download Archer, John. "Country and City in the American Romantic Suburb." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 42:2 (May 1983): 139-156. Download Archer, John. "Ideology and Aspiration: Individualism, the Middle Class, and the Genesis of the Anglo-American Suburb." Journal of Urban History 14(2) (1988): 214-253. Archer, John. "Paras, Palaces, Pathogens: Frameworks for the Growth of Calcutta, 1800-1850." City & Society 12(2) (2000): 19-54. Download Archer, John. "Colonial Suburbs in South Asia, 1700-1850." In Roger Silverstone, ed. Visions of Suburbia (London: Routledge, 1997), 26-54. Download Archer, John. "Landscape and Identity: Baby Talk at the Leasowes, 1760." Cultural Critique 51 (Spring 2002): 143-185. Download Research ActivitiesSuburban aesthetics Pathology of Place: How do various places (inner cities, ticky-tacky suburbs, etc.) come to be understood as pathological by the larger culture? Professional ActivitiesChair, Department of Cultural Studies and Comparative Literature, U of M: 2007-2010 Committee on the Press, University of Minnesota Press: 2007 - 2010 Outreach ActivitiesInterviewed for: Mary Jane Smetanka, Sidewalks? Too Pedestrian for Some. In Suburbs, Sidewalks Can Divide. Some Say They Encroach on Privacy. For Others, They Bring Safety and a Sense of Connection. Star Tribune, 19 August 2007, A1, A14, A15. Interviewed on: Willie & Jay program, KSTP-AM 1500, 22 August 2007, 8:35-8:45 am.: Discussion of sidewalks in the suburbs Interviewed for: Bob Shaw, New Parks Give Boomers Room to Roam, St. Paul Pioneer Press, 1 July 2007. Interviewed for: "The Hot New Trend: Meeting the Neighbors": St. Paul Pioneer Press, 21 August 2006 Interviewed for: "Burbs Find Place in Higher Ed": St Paul Pioneer Press, 19 March 2006 Interviewed for: "The Rise of Suburbia": Star Tribune, 12 March 2006 Interviewed for: Clayton Collins, Americans Dream of Ever-Grander Homes,: Christian Science Monitor, 3 August 2005 Interviewed for: Heaven Can Wait: I Want to Give West Des Moines a Chance First: The Des Moines Register, 12 September 2004 Interviewed for: Focusing on the Burbs: Academics, Filmmakers Begin to See Complexity of Suburbs: The Sunday Republican (Waterbury, CT), 8 December 2002 Featured guest, "Film Forum: The Suburbs": Odyssey, WBEZ Chicago Public Radio, 22 February 2002 Consultant, "Dwellings" (television series): KTCA-TV St. Paul, 1998 AwardsAlice Davis Hitchcock Award for most distinguished book, Society of Architectural Historians, 2007 Scholar of the College, College of Liberal Arts, U of M, 2007 - 2010 Faculty Fellow, Metropolitan Design Center, University of Minnesota, 2003 - 2004 John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship, 1987 - 1988 College of Liberal Arts "Red" Motley Teaching Award, University of Minnesota, 1999 First Annual Award for Excellence in the Teaching of Writing, Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Writing, 1998 National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship for Independent Study and Research, 1983 - 1984 Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, Visiting Scholar, 1991 McKnight Arts and Humanities Research Award, University of Minnesota, 2004 - 2007 American Institute of Indian Studies Fellowship, 1987 - 1988

1Looking BackNationally: PopulationHousing Growth patternsTransportation and TechnologyEnvironment

An Example: Twin Cities Metropolitan Area

One of the fastest growth rates

$25,000Nationally:Population grown 100,000 million people since 1966 we are among the fastest growing countries in the world, youngest boomers will be in their 80s in 2029 and with the life expectancy increasing will outlive all previous generations, we will continue to be the melting pot with European heritage dropping to 47% of the population and household size will continuing to decline,

Housing averaged $25,000 40 years ago ($170,000) 1,400 sq ft 11/2 baths how many of you grew up in a home with one bath

Urban growth was sprawling outward in concentric rings or along radials to become multi centers ( Buck head, Tyson's corner, Tech Center)

We moved from an exporter of oil to a major importer and we increased our individual space with automobiles at great public expense to end up with those shinny new freeway in disrepair estimated to cost over $1.6 trillion

How many remember the first earth day, being shocked by Rachel Carsons Silent Spring or thinking that Jane Jacobs was full of bunk. What an awakening to reality that is evolving to national standard

WE are using the Twin Cities Settlement pattern Example:


1935-1939Developed between 1935- 1939Developed before 1935Twin Cities Metropolitan AreaParcel Development

Bi-polar nature of the Twin Cities Region

9th Federal Reserve

Splendid Isolation

Extensive LandIn 1939 growth generally contain in the CC

Explain the map Rivers Centeral Cites, street car subs, growth near recreation, market towns ( as we go through the next few maps notice the growth outside the MUSA

Its growth is controlled by individual cities and townships and by the Metropolitan Council. The primary, but not only, growth control since 1975 is the MUSA. The primary MC goal within this area is to achieve a density of 3 or more units per acre for the efficient disposal of waste water.

Simultaneous grow nodes by the River on the River and because of the River: St. Anthony falls, head of navigation

Federal Reserve: Shaped the economy which was never a major industrial region but with the universities, more orients to finance, services and high tech, generating some what higher income per capita then most other regions

Splendid Isolation: Further form other metro areas it grew a more independent mind set, a greater determination to solve own problems, fostered a international airline, national railways, and many fortune 500 companies

Extensive agricultural Land: 3

1955-1959Developed between 1955- 1959Developed before 1955Twin Cities Metropolitan AreaParcel Development

Suburbia Emerges:Less dense than LA in the 1960s

Cheap land and cheap oil

Government promotion

Lending institutions

Annexation/ Minneapolis

Rejection lead to State intervention

By 1959 with interstates under construction:

Density lower than LA, movements along the radials

Some of the lowest urban land costs in the nation (John Borcherts work showed how much cheaper land was because of sprawl some of the lowest land costs in the nation)

Federal governments FHA and highway program

Lending institutions lower interest rates in the suburbs than the CC

Annexation and Mpls: George Martin and Frank Moulton both brilliant politician control the Mpls City Council discourage annexation

The Non partisan legislature responds to Mpls by making incorporation easier, and enabled municipal liquor stores with the idea that the revenue could be used for infrastructure in totally residential suburbs. A number of municipal suburbs were created over night (City Mangers)

4Parcel Development

Multiple Centers

Located to protect private investments rather than form the structure of a Metropolitan Region

Decision not to build rail mass transit systemDeveloped between 1975- 1979Developed before 1975Twin Cities Metropolitan Area1975-1979By 1979 we see the rise of multiple centers but a determination to save the Downtowns

Multi centers were established framed around the distance people willing to travel in time (Yellow are the original dales that are today expanded into Regional Centers, the Green are the two CBD)

the rise of the dales beginning with Victor Gruins South dale ending with Mall of America

Over time the larger centers added offices, MF housing traditional use located in the CBD

But difference: Rather than locating these centers on major radials that focused on the traditional centers in the region (such as Washington DC) which would have made it easier to add transit, located on a system that protected the down town stores

Major decision not to build a mass transit system but to rely on buses


1995-1999Developed between 1995- 1999Developed before 1995Twin Cities Metropolitan AreaParcel Development

Growth Jumps the River