Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System Chapter 41 Mosby items and derived items ©...

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Transcript of Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System Chapter 41 Mosby items and derived items ©...

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Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System Chapter 41 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Slide 2 2 Skeletal System Forms the body Forms the body Supports tissues Supports tissues Permits movement by providing points of attachment for muscles Permits movement by providing points of attachment for muscles Site of blood cell formation Site of blood cell formation Mineral storage Mineral storage Slide 3 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 3 Bone Rigid yet flexible connective tissue Rigid yet flexible connective tissue Constituents Constituents Cells Cells Fibers Fibers Ground substance Ground substance Slide 4 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 4 Bone Tissue Osteoblasts Osteoblasts Derived from mesenchymal cells Derived from mesenchymal cells Produce type I collagen Produce type I collagen Respond to parathyroid hormone Respond to parathyroid hormone Produce osteocalcin Produce osteocalcin Synthesize osteoid Synthesize osteoid Nonmineralized bone matrix Nonmineralized bone matrix Slide 5 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 5 Bone Tissue Osteocyte Osteocyte Transformed osteoblast surrounded in osteoid as it hardens from deposited minerals Transformed osteoblast surrounded in osteoid as it hardens from deposited minerals Osteoclast Osteoclast The major reabsorptive cell of the bone The major reabsorptive cell of the bone Large, multinucleated cells Large, multinucleated cells Contains lysosomes filled with hydrolytic enzymes Contains lysosomes filled with hydrolytic enzymes Slide 6 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 6 Bone Matrix 35% organic and 65% inorganic 35% organic and 65% inorganic Collagen fibers Collagen fibers Calcium and phosphate minerals Calcium and phosphate minerals Proteoglycans Proteoglycans Glycoproteins Glycoproteins Slide 7 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 7 Bone Tissue Compact (cortical) bone Compact (cortical) bone 85% of the skeleton 85% of the skeleton Haversian system Haversian system Haversian canal, lamellae, lucunae, osteocyte, and canaliculi Haversian canal, lamellae, lucunae, osteocyte, and canaliculi Spongy (cancellous) bone Spongy (cancellous) bone Lack haversian systems Lack haversian systems Trabeculae Trabeculae Periosteum Periosteum Slide 8 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 8 Compact Bone Slide 9 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 9 Bone 206 bones 206 bones Axial skeleton Axial skeleton 80 bones 80 bones Skull, vertebral column, thorax Skull, vertebral column, thorax Appendicular skeleton Appendicular skeleton 126 bones 126 bones Upper and lower extremities, the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle Upper and lower extremities, the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle Slide 10 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 10 Skeleton Slide 11 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 11Bones Long bones Long bones Diaphysis Diaphysis Metaphysis Metaphysis Epiphysis Epiphysis Epiphyseal plate Epiphyseal plate In a child epiphysis is separated from metaphysis by a cartilaginous growth plate. After puberty epiphyseal plate calcifies and epiphysis and metaphysis merge In a child epiphysis is separated from metaphysis by a cartilaginous growth plate. After puberty epiphyseal plate calcifies and epiphysis and metaphysis merge Epiphyseal line Epiphyseal line Medullary cavity Medullary cavity Endosteum Endosteum Slide 12 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 12 Long Bone Slide 13 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 13 Bones Flat bones Flat bones Short bones (cuboidal bones) Short bones (cuboidal bones) Irregular bones Irregular bones Slide 14 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 14 Bone Remodeling Bone-remodeling units Bone-remodeling units Repairs microscopic injuries and maintains bone integrity Repairs microscopic injuries and maintains bone integrity Phases Phases Activation of the remodeling cycle Activation of the remodeling cycle Reabsorption Reabsorption Formation of new bone Formation of new bone Slide 15 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 15 Bone Remodeling Slide 16 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 16 Bone Wound Healing Hematoma formation Hematoma formation Procallus formation Procallus formation Callus formation Callus formation Callus replacement Callus replacement Remodeling Remodeling Slide 17 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 17 Joints Site where two or more bones meet Site where two or more bones meet Promote stability and mobility of the skeleton Promote stability and mobility of the skeleton Slide 18 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 18 Joints Joint classifications based on movement Joint classifications based on movement Synarthrosis Synarthrosis Immovable Immovable Amphiarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Slightly movable Slightly movable Diarthrosis Diarthrosis Freely movable Freely movable Slide 19 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 19 Joints Joint classifications based on structure Joint classifications based on structure Fibrous Fibrous Usually synarthroses (immovable) Usually synarthroses (immovable) However, many allow some movement However, many allow some movement Degree of movement depends on the distance between the bones and the flexibility of the fibrous connective tissue Degree of movement depends on the distance between the bones and the flexibility of the fibrous connective tissue Sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses Sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses Slide 20 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 20 Joints Joint classifications based on structure Joint classifications based on structure Cartilaginous Cartilaginous Symphysis Symphysis Bones are united by a pad or disk of fibrocartilage Bones are united by a pad or disk of fibrocartilage Example: symphysis pubis, intervetebral disks Example: symphysis pubis, intervetebral disks Synchondrosis Synchondrosis Bones are united by hyaline cartilage Bones are united by hyaline cartilage Example: joints between the ribs and the sternum Example: joints between the ribs and the sternum Slide 21 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 21 Joints Classifications based on structure Classifications based on structure Synovial (most movable, most complex) contain: Synovial (most movable, most complex) contain: A fibrous joint capsule (articular capsule) A fibrous joint capsule (articular capsule) Synovial membrane that lines inner surface of joint capsule Synovial membrane that lines inner surface of joint capsule Joint cavity (synovial cavity), a space formed by the capsule Joint cavity (synovial cavity), a space formed by the capsule Synovial fluid, which fills the joint cavity and lubricates joint surface Synovial fluid, which fills the joint cavity and lubricates joint surface Articular cartilage, which covers and pads the articulating bony surfaces Articular cartilage, which covers and pads the articulating bony surfaces Slide 22 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 22 Joints Slide 23 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 23 Joints Slide 24 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 24 Joints Slide 25 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 25 Joints Slide 26 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 26 Joints Slide 27 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 27 Skeletal Muscles Millions of individual muscle fibers that contract and relax to facilitate movement Millions of individual muscle fibers that contract and relax to facilitate movement 75% water, 20% protein, 5% organic and inorganic compounds 75% water, 20% protein, 5% organic and inorganic compounds 350 named muscles (most are paired) 350 named muscles (most are paired) 2 to 60 cm long 2 to 60 cm long Fusiform muscles Fusiform muscles Pennate muscles Pennate muscles Slide 28 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 28 Skeletal Muscles Slide 29 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 29 Skeletal Muscles Whole muscle Whole muscle Fascia Fascia Epimysium Epimysium Tendon Tendon Perimysium Perimysium Fascicles Fascicles Endomysium Endomysium Slide 30 Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 30 Muscle Skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle Voluntary Voluntary Controlled directly by the central nervous system Controlled directly by the central nervous system Striated Striated The striated, or striped, pattern of skeletal muscle The striated, or striped, pattern of skeletal muscle Result from organization of muscle fibers into the contractile units called sarcomeres Result from organization of muscle fibers into the contractile units called sarcomeres Extrafusal Extrafusal Distinguishes skeletal muscle fibers from other contractile fibers Distinguishes skeletal muscle fibers from othe