Stretching Lecture

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    STRETCHINGSTRETCHINGLoris BertolacciLoris Bertolacci

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    STRETCHINGSTRETCHING

    PNFPNFStretchingStretching

    Passive stretchingPassive stretching

    Active stretchingActive stretching

    Static stretchingStatic stretching

    Dynamic stretchingDynamic stretching

    Ballistic stretchingBallistic stretching

    Resistance StretchingResistance Stretching

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    STRETCHREFLEXSTRETCHREFLEX

    The Stretch ReflexThe Stretch Reflex

    The more sudden the change in muscle length, theThe more sudden the change in muscle length, thestronger the muscle contractions will bestronger the muscle contractions will be

    (plyometric, or "jump", training is based on this(plyometric, or "jump", training is based on thisfact). This basic function of the muscle spindlefact). This basic function of the muscle spindlehelps to maintain muscle tone and to protecthelps to maintain muscle tone and to protect

    the body from injury.the body from injury.

    One of the reasons for holding a stretch for aOne of the reasons for holding a stretch for aprolonged period of time is that as you hold theprolonged period of time is that as you hold the

    muscle in a stretched position, the musclemuscle in a stretched position, the musclespindle habituates (becomes accustomed to thespindle habituates (becomes accustomed to the

    new length) and reduces its signaling.new length) and reduces its signaling.Gradually, you can train your stretch receptorsGradually, you can train your stretch receptorsto allow greater lengthening of the muscles.to allow greater lengthening of the muscles.

    BUT?BUT?

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    SomeWordsSomeWords

    Reciprocal InhibitionReciprocal Inhibition

    Bodybuilders should stretchBodybuilders should stretch

    Contortionists should strenghtenContortionists should strenghten

    Specific Joint LaxitySpecific Joint Laxity

    Muscular Imbalances: Janda?Muscular Imbalances: Janda?

    PNF STRETCH?PNF STRETCH?Yoga SpinYoga SpinA sequence ofA sequence ofstretching and breathing used in conjunction withstretching and breathing used in conjunction withflowing chi (energy). A great preflowing chi (energy). A great pre--event treatmentevent treatment

    to increase flexibility and balance the body andto increase flexibility and balance the body andmind connection.mind connection.

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    30%.

    ??????

    Is that

    Ballisitic?

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    MUSCLEMUSCLE

    Muscle FiberMuscle Fiber

    MyofibrilsMyofibrils--SarcomeresSarcomeres

    MyofilamentsMyofilaments--Actin/Myosin. ( Sliding myofilament theory)Actin/Myosin. ( Sliding myofilament theory)

    Function of muscle is to develop tensionFunction of muscle is to develop tension

    Muscle BalanceMuscle Balance

    Muscle ControlMuscle Control

    AgeAge

    ImmobilizationImmobilization

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    CONNECTIVETISSUECONNECTIVETISSUE

    AlterScience ofStretchingAlterScience ofStretching

    Fibrous connective tissueFibrous connective tissue--CollagenCollagen Elastic connective tissueElastic connective tissue--Elastic fibreElastic fibre ROMROM--Blend of these two factors.Blend of these two factors.

    Total Resistance of fibresTotal Resistance of fibres 10% tendon/47% ligament/41% fascia.10% tendon/47% ligament/41% fascia.

    Thus connective tissue must be fully stretchedThus connective tissue must be fully stretched

    with the muscle relaxed for flexibility to bewith the muscle relaxed for flexibility to beoptimally developed.optimally developed.

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    AfterTraining versusAfterTraining versus

    DevelopmentalStretchingDevelopmentalStretching Once the muscle fiber is at its maximum resting length (allOnce the muscle fiber is at its maximum resting length (all

    the sarcomeres are fully stretched), additional stretchingthe sarcomeres are fully stretched), additional stretchingplaces force on the surrounding connective tissue (see Asplaces force on the surrounding connective tissue (see Asthe tension increases, the collagen fibers in the connectivethe tension increases, the collagen fibers in the connectivetissue align themselves along the same line of force as thetissue align themselves along the same line of force as the

    tension.tension.

    Hence when you stretch, the muscle fiber is pulled out to itsHence when you stretch, the muscle fiber is pulled out to itsfull length sarcomere by sarcomere, and then the connectivefull length sarcomere by sarcomere, and then the connectivetissue takes up the remaining slack. When this occurs, ittissue takes up the remaining slack. When this occurs, ithelps to realign any disorganized fibers in the direction of thehelps to realign any disorganized fibers in the direction of the

    tension. This realignment is what helps to rehabilitatetension. This realignment is what helps to rehabilitatescarred tissue back to health.scarred tissue back to health.

    From Book Science of StretchingFrom Book Science of StretchingAlterAlter

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    DynamicWU (or Stretches?)DynamicWU (or Stretches?)

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    Screening or

    Functional Flexibilityor Dynamic

    Movement or Full

    Range Movement orSquatting with a

    stick above ones

    head.

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    SCREENING

    From AFL Study

    on predicting

    hamstringsthrough

    screening.

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    PNFPNF2 Receptors2 Receptors

    1)1) Golgi Tendon Organs: Sensitive to changes in tension.Golgi Tendon Organs: Sensitive to changes in tension.2)2) Muscle Spindles: Senstive to change in length.Muscle Spindles: Senstive to change in length.

    AUTOGENIC INHIBITIONAUTOGENIC INHIBITION

    Isometric contraction of a muscle placed on a slight stretch isIsometric contraction of a muscle placed on a slight stretch isfollowed byfollowed byrelaxation.relaxation.

    Inhibition which is mediated by afferent fibers from a stretchedInhibition which is mediated by afferent fibers from a stretched muscle andmuscle andacting on the alpah motorneurons supplying that muscle,thus causacting on the alpah motorneurons supplying that muscle,thus causing iting it

    to relax.to relax.

    Ruch and Patton 1965Ruch and Patton 1965

    FOR: Balance/Strength/ROM/CoFOR: Balance/Strength/ROM/Co--ordination etc etcordination etc etc

    AGAINST: ? Dangerous/Valsalva?/AGAINST: ? Dangerous/Valsalva?/

    Challenges to the theory of PNF and Golgi Organs onlyChallenges to the theory of PNF and Golgi Organs onlymomentarily depressed after a contraction?momentarily depressed after a contraction?

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    PNFPNF

    The holdThe hold--relax or contract/relaxrelax or contract/relax

    After assuming an initial passive stretch, the muscle being streAfter assuming an initial passive stretch, the muscle being stretched is isometricallytched is isometricallycontracted for 7contracted for 7--15 seconds, after which the muscle is briefly relaxed for 215 seconds, after which the muscle is briefly relaxed for 2 --3 seconds, and3 seconds, and

    then immediately subjected to a passive stretch which stretchesthen immediately subjected to a passive stretch which stretchesthe muscle even furtherthe muscle even furtherthan the initial passive stretch. This passive stretch is heldthan the initial passive stretch. This passive stretch is heldfor 10for 10--15 seconds. The15 seconds. The

    muscle is then relaxed for 20 seconds before performing anothermuscle is then relaxed for 20 seconds before performing anotherPNF technique.PNF technique.

    The holdThe hold--relaxrelax--contract CRACcontract CRAC

    This technique is also called the contractThis technique is also called the contract--relaxrelax--contract, and the contractcontract, and the contract--relaxrelax--

    antagonistantagonist--contract (or CRAC). It involves performing two isometric contraccontract (or CRAC). It involves performing two isometric contrac tions: first of thetions: first of theagonists, then, of the antagonists. The first part is similar toagonists, then, of the antagonists. The first part is similar to the holdthe hold--relax where, afterrelax where, after

    assuming an initial passive stretch, the stretched muscle is isoassuming an initial passive stretch, the stretched muscle is isometrically contracted for 7metrically contracted for 7--15 seconds. Then the muscle is relaxed while its antagonist imme15 seconds. Then the muscle is relaxed while its antagonist immediately performs andiately performs an

    isometric contraction that is held for 7isometric contraction that is held for 7--15 seconds. The muscles are then relaxed for 2015 seconds. The muscles are then relaxed for 20

    seconds before performing another PNF technique.seconds before performing another PNF technique.

    The holdThe hold--relaxrelax--swingswing

    Bounce after contractBounce after contract....

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    Contemporaryview proposesthat PNFContemporaryview proposesthat PNF

    stretchinginfluences thepoint atwhichstretchinginfluences thepoint atwhich

    stretchis perceivedor toleratedstretchis perceivedor tolerated

    Sports Med. 2006;36(11):929Sports Med. 2006;36(11):929--39.39.

    SharmanSharman