Stress. Outline Definition and measurement Stress events and reactions –body, behavior,...
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Definition and measurementStress events and reactionsbody, behavior, emotion, and cognitionDisordersStress mediatorsStress immunity linksHealth
Stress DefinitionsCoping process triggered by an eventStressors are environmental events (either objectively good or bad)Stress reactions are the physical, psychological, and behavioral responses
Psychological Stressorsevent forces a person to change or adaptCategories:Catastrophic eventsLife changes and strainsChronic stressorsDaily hassles
Measuring StressSocial Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)life change units measuredsuch as, marriage, divorce, job loss Life Experiences Survey (LES)perceptions of event criticalInterviews and Daily Dairies
Selyes GeneralAdaptation Syndrome
SAM and HPA Systems
Other Responses to StressBehavioral Responsesjumpiness, shaky voice, self-medication with alcohol Emotionalgrumpy, fatigued, depressedCognitiveruminative thinkingcatastrophizingother processesproblem-solving errorsimpaired decision making
A story of two frogs...Once upon a time, there was a frog who was dropped into a pot of hot water. Feeling the intense heat, she immediately jumped out and saved her life (good stress).
But, there was another frog who was put into a pot of cold water which was set on a burner over low heat. One degree at a time the temperature increased, but the frog became accustomed to the heat, stayed in the pot and eventually was boiled (bad stress).
Some Classic Stress DisordersBurnout/Depression/AnxietyPosttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prime exampletrauma induced anxiety disordersoldierschildhood sexual abuse
PTSDDetermined by:Perception of the SituationInability to CopeResult:Effects on general state of physical and mental health
PTSD SymptomsRe-experiencing intrusive flashbacks nightmaresAvoidance and numbingavoiding reminders inability to remember important aspects of the trauma loss of interest in activities and life in general feeling detached from others and emotionally numb sense of a limited future (you dont expect to live)Symptoms of PTSD: anxiety and arousaldifficulty falling or staying asleep irritability difficulty concentrating hypervigilance (constant red alert) feeling jumpy and easily startled
Effects on HippocampusCell death in hippocampusSmall hippocampus = more vulnerable
How Stressors Are PerceivedCognitive appraisal of the stressorInfluence of cognitive factors weakens somewhat as stressors become more severeLazarus et al. (1965)
Prediction and Controlpredictable versus unpredictableintense and relatively short period, especiallycontrollable versus uncontrollableperception of control reduces stress
Coping Resourcesand Coping MethodsResources moneytimeMethods problem-focusedemotion-focused
Social Supportquantityqualitysituationright type
Stress, Blood Pressure, and Support
Stress and Personality Disease-prone personalities tend to:stress viewed as long-term, catastrophic threats, brought on by self.pessimistic about ability to overcome Stress-hardy or disease-resistantstress is short term dispositional optimism (adds four years to life)
Stress and GenderMales tend to get angry and/or avoid stressorsfight-or-flight pattern.Females are more likely to help and get helptend and befriend style.
Stress and Immunity
Immune SystemNonspecifichigh temperaturemacrophages (big eaters)
SpecificLymphocytes (memory cells)T-cellsB-cells
Acute or Good StressIncreased traffic of lymphocytes and macrophages related adrenal secretion (SAM)enhances responses for which there is an immunologic memory beneficial for cancer tumour cell, but pathologic for autoimmune or allergic responses
Chronic or Bad StressReduced traffic of lymphocytes and macrophagesAssociated with increased HPA activity increased severity of many common illnesses
Stress and Cardiovascular SystemRepeated activation of fight or flight linked to coronary heart disease, hypertension, and stroke.Physical reactions depend partly on ones personality (hostility)
Goals of Health PsychologyEncourage people control risk factorsUnderstand the role played by stress in physical health and illness.
Health-Endangering BehaviorsSmokingAlcoholUnsafe Sex
Encouraging Healthy BehaviorFactors:feel personal threatunderstanding of seriousness of the illnessbelief that a particular practice will reduce the threatcost less than benefit
Stages of ReadinessPrecontemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenance
Coping StrategiesCognitive coping strategiescognitive restructuringEmotional coping strategiesBehavioral coping strategiesPhysical coping strategiesprogressive relaxation training
Rational Emotive Thinking(Albert Ellis)ActivatingEventBeliefs(self talk)ConsequencesABCThe ABCs of Rational Emotive Thinking!!!
Thinking becomes a threat if...ABC(-) recalldoubthelpless
Irrational ThinkingPerfectionist thinkingOvergeneralizationDisqualifying the positiveJumping to conclusionsMagnifying / MinimizingEmotional ReasoningShouldaholism / Mustrabation
Thinking creates a solution if...ABC(+) recallaffirmationopportunity