SPIE Photonics West 2012 ,PERFOS chalcogenide photonics crystal fiber presentation

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SPIE photonics West 2012, PERFOS presentation, "RECENT ADVANCES IN VERY HIGHLY NONLINEAR CHALCOGENIDE PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS"

Transcript of SPIE Photonics West 2012 ,PERFOS chalcogenide photonics crystal fiber presentation

  • 1.PERFOS : R&D platform of Photonics BretagneRECENT ADVANCES IN VERY HIGHLY NONLINEAR CHALCOGENIDE PHOTONICCRYSTAL FIBERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONSDavid Mchin1, Laurent Brilland1, Johann Troles2,3, ThierryChartier2,4, Pascal Besnard2,4, Guillaume Canat5, Gilles Renversez61PERFOS (France), 2UEB (France), 3EVC (France), 4FOTON (France), 5ONERA (France), 6Institut Fresnel (France). DEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION

2. OutlineIntroductionChalcogenide Microstructured Fibers (EVC, PERFOS)Four-wave Mixing Based Wavelength Conversion (FOTON)Mid-IR Supercontinuum And Fourth-order Cascaded Raman Shift (ONERA)Brillouin Fiber Laser (FOTON)Conclusion and PerspectivesDEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION 3. IntroductionLast month, the Perfos association became Photonics Bretagne , the official photonics cluster of the Bretagne region in France.Perfos is now the R&D platform of the cluster and continues to design andfabricate specialty microstructured fibers,both in silica and chalcogenide. DEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION3 4. IntroductionThe Photonics Bretagne cluster has 42 members:22 companies, 10 R&D centers and schools, 10 support agencies.Amgmicrowave, FCequipments, Ideoptics, Idil, Ixfiber, Jmdthque, Keopsys, Kerdry, Laseo, Laserconseil,Mulann-Prolann, Oxxius, Quantel, Yenista, CNRS FOTON, ENSSAT, IUT-Lannion (Mesures Physiques), Lyce LeDantec (BTS Gnie optique), ABRET, CAD22, Technopole Anticipa. DiafirEvosensEdixiaMicroModuleLe Verre FluorCNRS LSOLOptinventRESO LANNION CNRS EVCPERDYN CNRS IPR Photonique BDI BREST Bretagne international CCIR RENNESInstitut Maupertuis MEITONot based in Bretagne: Thales Underwater Systems, DCNS, ONERA, ISL, Rhnaphotonics.DEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERSFOR YOUR APPLICATION4 5. OutlineIntroductionChalcogenide Microstructured Fibers (EVC, PERFOS)Four-wave Mixing Based Wavelength Conversion (FOTON)Mid-IR Supercontinuum And Fourth-order Cascaded Raman Shift (ONERA)Brillouin Fiber Laser (FOTON)Conclusion and PerspectivesDEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERSFOR YOUR APPLICATION 6. Why use chalcogenide fibers?1 Transmission extendsfar in infrared region2A high nonlinearrefractive index n2As2Se3 GeSbSChalcogenide glassesThe Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) open the wayof new applications in the near and middle infrared regionDEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION6 7. Potential of applicationsNonlinear applications: -Supercontinuum generation in Mid IR: spectroscopy applicationby LIDAR system-At Telecom wavelengths (Kerr, Brillouin and Raman effects):Optical gates, wavelength conversionPassive functions:-Sensors: a lot of chemical species has their fundamental vibrationin the Mid IR (CO2 detection)-Optical Transmission in singlemode or multimode guiding regime(with small or large Mode Field Diameter)And much more!!DEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION7 8. Chalcogenide glass properties DEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION8 9. Technological key point: glass purification-Water, oxides, carbon, bubbles and other impurities have tobe removed to improve chalcogenide fibre transmission-Some distillations under vacuum are necessary to remove theresidual pollutants in order to obtain high purity glass.Vaccum pumpThermal treatment in a rocking furnace Sealing place 900 Homogenization 800Condensation 700of vapors SilicaTemperature (C)AmpouleLiquid600 Elements nitrogen.Heating andQuenching 500reaction of 100C / min 400 the elements 300Annealing 200Cooling 100 0 010 20 304050 Time (hours) Sulfur based glass Selenium based glassDEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION9 10. Technological key point: glass purificationAsSe glass-Good stability against crystallization n2.8 at 1,55m- Low loss (purification capability)tg 165C- Aging n2~500*n2silicaThe Purification steps are crucial to obtain low loss fiber: OH OxydesOHUnpurified glassHigh purity glassDEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION 1010 11. Drawing tower PPressureNeutral gasgasarrivalsystemDrawingDrawing parameters :surroundingHeating area Preform speed= 1mm/minwall Drum speed= 5 m/minDiameter Drawing temperature= 360C measurement L> 50m Optical fiber Tension drum measurementDEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION11 12. Why use microstructured fibers Low cladding index nair < nsilica Design defined by d/ Endessly singlemode (d/ < 0.45) nsilice Dispersion managementneffectif dnair Mode diameter less sensitive to High nonlinearity coefficient Photonic bandgap fiberDEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION12 13. Microstructured Chalcogenide Fibers: Properties The losses decrease with the number ofrings For high index materials like Chalcogenideglasses, three rings of holes are enough toobtain waveguide losses lower than materiallosses (~ 1dB/m) DEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION13 14. Stack and draw technique (Old method) Stacking together capillaries and rods to form a preform with a solid central region surrounded by an array of air holes which is then drawn down to form a PCF MicrostructuredfiberTubes fabrication fromthe rotationnal methodStack of capillaries DEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERSFOR YOUR APPLICATION14 15. Stack and draw technique (Old method) CapillariesInterstitial holes During the jacketing process, microinhomogeneities holes appear on the preform: -Bubbles are due to the negative pressure Bubbles -Origin of the colour contrast at thecapillary interfaces is unclear: Crystals, very smallbubbles, volatile material depositionCapillariesinterfaces Main drawback of the method: losses greater than 15 dB/m Other fabrication methods had to be developed to reach losses < 1dB/mDEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION15 16. Molding technique (New method) Microstructured Silica tube silica guides Silica capillaries Glass rod1st step: mold fabricationAsSe preform(~16mm; L~5 cmGlass molded hydrofluoric acidon capillaries2nd step: heating and flowing steps3nd step: silica capillaries removal16DEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERSFOR YOUR APPLICATION 17. Molding technique key point: Capillary thickness Coefficient of thermal expansion:Chalcogenide glasses Silica glass[14 -25 ].10-6 K-1 >>0.54. 10-6 K-1Silica capillaries induce an important mechanical stress to the chalcogenideglass Chalcogenide glass breakingWith the right dimensions, the silica capillaries are moreflexible and do not induce chalcogenide glass breakingDEVELOPING CUSTOM MICROSTRUCTURED FIBERS FOR YOUR APPLICATION17 18. PCF fabricated using the molding techniqueMultimode grapefruit AsSe PCF5 Attenuation (dB/m)4321013 5 7 Wavelength (m)- Background attenuation < 0.5 dB/m,- [email protected]