Schaefer c10

download Schaefer c10

of 35

  • date post

    17-Jul-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    71
  • download

    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Schaefer c10

  • Chapter 10Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans

    2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Mexican AmericansLegacy of war created Americas two largest Hispanic minoritiesMexican Americans and Puerto RicansThe Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848Under the treaty, new Americans guaranteed rights to property and their cultural traditions 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Mexican AmericansThe loss of land and the lack of legal protection after the treatyUS gained Texas, California, Arizona, and New Mexico for $15 millionIn exchange, US granted citizenship to 75,000 Mexican nationalsGuaranteed 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Mexican AmericansReligious freedomProperty rightsCultural integrityLand conflict between Anglo ranchers and Mexican-American ranchersMexican-Americans became outsiders in their own land 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Immigrant ExperienceImmigration from Mexico is unique in several respectsContinuous large-scale movement for most of this centuryProximity of Mexico encourage immigrants to maintain strong cultural & language ties 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Immigrant ExperienceAura of illegality that surrounded Mexican migrants Suspicion of Anglos toward Mexicans contributed to mutual distrust Mexican immigration tied closely to the economies of Mexico & the United States 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Immigrant ExperienceUS corporations invested in Mexico in a way that maximized profits but minimized:Money in Mexico to provide employmentMexican workers are used as cheap laborers in their own country by fellow: Mexicans & Americans or as undocumented workers here 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Immigrant ExperienceRepatriationProgram of deporting Mexicans during depression of 1930sConstitutional because only illegal aliens were to be deportedMany classified as illegal had resided in US for decades 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Immigrant ExperienceBracerosProgram between Mexico & US allow migration across border by contracted laborMexicans regarded as positive presence when usefulOperation Wetback and Special Force Operation (1954) 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Immigrant ExperienceMojadosSlang for Mexicans who enter illegally; refer to those who secretly swim across Rio GrandeThe Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF)Expressed concern over handling of illegal aliens 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Economic PictureMexican Americans and Puerto RicansHigher unemployment rates, higher rates of poverty, and lower incomes than WhitesThe Culture of PovertyEmbraces a deviant way of life that involves: No future planning, no enduring commitment to marriage, and absence of work ethic 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Economic PictureDeveloped by Oscar LewisCultural traits as the cause of povertyBlaming the victimUsed indiscriminately to explain continued povertyCsar ChavezFormed National Farm Workers AssociationBecame United Farm Workers (UFW) 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Economic PictureDifficulties of organizing migrant farm workersNo savings for organizing or to live on while on strikeGrowers relied on limitless supply of Mexican laborers to replace strikersOpposition by agribusiness and lawmakers 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Political OrganizationsLa Raza Unida (LRU)Pride in ones Spanish, Native American, and Mexican heritageSupported candidates who offer alternatives to the Democratic and Republican partiesChicanismo (Chicanozaje)Stress a positive self-image 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Political OrganizationsReies Lopez Tijerina (1963)Purpose of the organization was to recover lost landMexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF) 1967Pursue issues through the courts and protect Mexican Americans constitutional rights 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Dual NationalityThe United States does not prohibit dual nationalityEstimated that anywhere from 5 million to 10 million Mexican Americans are eligible: For such dual nationality 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Puerto RicansBorinquen (Puerto Rico) claimed by Spain in 1493Native inhabitants, Taino IndiansReduced in number by conquest, slavery, and genocidePuerto Rico annexed by the US from Spain after the Spanish-American War 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Puerto RicansColonization of Puerto RicansPolitically, then culturally, and economicallyJones Act of 1917Citizenship extended to Puerto Ricans1948Cannot vote in presidential elections and have no voting representations 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Bridge Between the Island and the MainlandDespite citizenship, occasionally challenged by immigration officialsOther Latin Americans attempt to enter country posing as Puerto RicansPush and pull factors led to migration from the Island to the mainland 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Bridge Between the Island and the MainlandNeoricansPuerto Ricans in New YorkBetter educated and have more money than Puerto Ricans from the IslandOften resented by long time IslandersNow more dispersed throughout the mainland 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Island of Puerto RicoOriginal inhabitants, Taino Indians, wiped out in a couple of generationsNeocolonialismRefers to continuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countriesEnglish and Spanish are the official languages 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Island of Puerto RicoStatehood and Self-RulePuerto Ricans periodically argued and fought for independenceCommonwealth supporters argue too many unknown costs, so embrace status quoOthers view statehood as key to increased economic development & tourist expansion 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Island of Puerto RicoArguments for and against independenceObama promised support to:a clear decision by the people on statehood, whatever it beBy the end of 2012 or soon thereafterStatehood, independence, or continuation of the islands current status 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Social Construction of RaceColor GradientReflects past fusion between different groupsRather than being black or white, such societies judge as lighter or darkerOn the Island social class determines raceOn the mainland race is more likely to determine social class 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Island EconomyOverall economy well below that of poorest areas of the USFederal government exempted US industries in Puerto Rico from taxes on profits (10 years)Enterprise ZonesIslands agriculture ignored and economic benefits to the island are limited 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Island EconomyUnemployment is three times that of mainlandPer capita income is less than half of Mississippi, the poorest statePuerto Rico emerging as major gateway to US for illegal drugs from South AmericaWorld Systems Theory 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Island EconomyMajor factors in Puerto Ricos economyTourismGovernment subsidies encouraged construction of luxury hotelsCriticismsMajor economic beneficiaries are investors from the mainland not locals 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Island EconomyHigh prices prevent less affluent from visitingNAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)Reduction of trade barriers and its lower wages undercut Puerto Ricos commonwealth advantageOther island nations compete for tourist dollars 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Contemporary Picture of Mexican Americans and Puerto RicansEducationIn 2008, only 55% of Mexican Americans & 76% of Puerto Ricans aged 25 or older:Had comp