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    Michele M. Summers

    Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Daytona Beach, Florida

    February 2007

  • Scenario-Based Training in TAA ABSTRACT

    Researcher: Michele M. Summers

    Title: Scenario-Based Training in Technically Advanced Aircraft as a Method to Improve Risk Management

    Institution: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

    Year: 2007

    The purpose of this research is to measure pilot attitudes toward scenario-based training as an

    effective training strategy in technically advanced aircraft. Two groups of pilots participated in a

    scenario-based, pilot proficiency training seminar sponsored by the Cirrus Owners and Pilots

    Association and by the Federal Aviation Administration Industry Training Standards research

    team. The author prepared a survey that was administered to these groups of pilots. The survey

    results demonstrated the effectiveness of scenario-based training as a method of teaching and

    group interaction. The results indicated that scenario-based training appears to be an effective

    method of improving pilot decision making skills and consequently may reduce the general

    aviation accident rate in technically advanced aircraft.


  • Scenario-Based Training in TAA TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page ABSTRACT 2 LIST OF TABLES 5 LIST OF FIGURES 6 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 7 Chapter I INTRODUCTION 8 Background 8 Statement of the Problem 9 Delimitations 9 Definition of Terms 10 II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RESEARCH 13 Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA) 13 Safety Study 14 Challenge of Flying TAA 16 Crew Resource Management (CRM) 17

    History of CRM 17

    Single Pilot CRM 19

    Single Pilot Resource Management (SRM) 20

    Using SRM in TAA 20

    Components of SRM 21

    Task Management 21


  • Scenario-Based Training in TAA Automation Management 21

    Situational Awareness 22

    Risk Management and Controlled Flight

    into Terrain (CFIT) Awareness 23

    Scenario-Based Training (SBT) 23

    Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) 24

    FITS Training Scenarios 24

    Statement of the Research Question 25 III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 26 Research Design 26 Research Model 26 Survey Population 26 Pretest 27 Distribution Method 27 Treatment of Data and Procedures 27 IV RESULTS 28 V DISCUSSION 37 VI CONCLUSIONS 41 VII RECOMMENDATIONS 42 REFERENCES 44 APPENDIXES 46


  • Scenario-Based Training in TAA LIST OF TABLES

    Table Page

    1 Nonparametric Correlations Spearmans Rho 29 2 Frequency Statistics 34 3 Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon W 35 4 Mann-Whitney U Test 36


  • Scenario-Based Training in TAA LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure Page

    1 Cirrus Accident Rate 15

    2 Numerical Values for Survey Questions 1-10 28

    3 Bar Chart for Question 1 30

    4 Bar Chart for Question 2 31

    5 Bar Chart for Question 3 31

    6 Bar Chart for Question 4 31

    7 Bar Chart for Question 5 32

    8 Bar Chart for Question 6 32

    9 Bar Chart for Question 7 32

    10 Bar Chart for Question 8 33

    11 Bar Chart for Question 9 33

    12 Bar Chart for Question 10 33


  • Scenario-Based Training in TAA ACRONYMS AND ABREVIATIONS

    ADM Aeronautical Decision Making

    ATC Air Traffic Control

    CFIT Controlled Flight Into Terrain

    COPA Cirrus Owners and Pilots Association

    CRM Crew Resource Management

    ERAU Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

    FAA Federal Aviation Administration

    FITS FAA Industry Training Standards

    GA General Aviation

    GAMA General Aviation Manufacturers Association

    GPS Global Positioning System

    IFR Instrument Flight Rules

    IMC Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    LOFT Line Oriented Flight Training

    MFD Multi-Function Display

    PFD Primary Flight Display

    PTS Practical Test Standards

    SBT Scenario-Based Training

    SPSS Statistical Package Software System

    SRM Single Pilot Resource Management

    UND University of North Dakota

    VFR Visual Flight Rules


  • Scenario-Based Training in TAA CHAPTER I



    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed a new training program titled,

    FAA Industry Training Standards (FITS). This program is designed to reduce the general

    aviation (GA) accident rate in a new classification of aircraft called technically advanced

    aircraft (TAA). The FITS program began in late 2001. By mid June 2002, the FAA had

    awarded two grants to Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) and to the University

    of North Dakota (UND) to develop pilot training syllabi. (Grant # 5495-0526) The designed

    program combines a scenario-based training (SBT) curriculum with the current standards

    found in the FAAs practical test standards (PTS).

    The FITS program challenges the GA community to develop an adaptable flight training

    system that will improve the safety and utility of increasingly complex flight operations.

    (Wright, 2002). The TAA will require new skills, a new decision-making matrix, and new

    maneuvers to ensure it provides the increased safety requirements desired by the FITS

    initiative F. H. Ayers (personal communication, November 16, 2003) The FITS program is

    leading an effort to change the current flight training process, to embrace technology, and to

    target the pilots decision-making skills with each curriculum. The FITS research team has

    developed the concept of single pilot resource management (SRM) to formalize the process

    used by GA pilots to manage risk. FITS teaches the pilot how to monitor, manage, and

    integrate information from many sources while flying a TAA (Connolly, 2003).


  • Scenario-Based Training in TAA Statement of the Problem

    The problem in GA is that current training methods do not appear to be impacting the

    TAA accident rate (Wright, 2002). Can SBT be used to teach SRM and have an effect on the

    way GA pilots transition into TAA? Is SBT a training method that will improve pilots risk

    management skills? The FAA has challenged a team of industry experts and universities with the

    task of developing new training syllabi that addresses training for GA pilots transitioning to a

    TAA. The FAA hopes that SBT along with SRM in the FITS training program, it will achieve its

    goal to reduce the GA accident rate in TAA.


    The purpose of this study is to assess pilots reactions to SBT and the concept of SRM.

    This paper will concentrate on SBT and its effects on GA pilot training in TAA. It primarily

    focuses on single pilot operations in a TAA. This paper will discuss some findings the FITS

    research team has had thus far concerning SBT and the concept of SRM.


  • Scenario-Based Training in TAA Definition of Terms

    Aeronautical Decision-Making (ADM) A systematic approach to the mental processes used

    by pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of

    circumstances. Aircraft flying requires a continuous stream of decisions pertaining to the pilot,

    the aircraft, and the environment. The Pilot, aircraft, environment, operation, and situation are

    five subject areas that combine to define ADM.

    Approach This paper uses the term an approach as a noun, meaning a procedure a pilot

    follows in order to obtain landing guidance. It can be utilized in both visual conditions or in

    instrument meteorological conditions.

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) The governing body of all civil flight operations

    within the United States.

    General Aviation (GA) - All aviation other than scheduled commercial airlines and military

    aviation. It accounts for carrying 166 million passengers annually including helicopters, single-

    engine piston airplanes, mid-size turboprops, and large business jets capable of flying non-stop

    international flights. General aviation is relied upon exclusively by more than 5,000 communities

    for their air transportation needs (scheduled airlines serve about 500). Nearly 70 percent of the

    hours flown by general aviation are for business purposes.

    Glass Cockpit An electronic display of flight instrumentation that includes aircraft navigation,

    communication, and systems information.

    Global Positioning System (GPS) A space based radio positioning, navigation, and time

    transfer system. The system provides highly accurate position, velocity information and precise

    time on a continuous global basis to an unlimited number of equipped users. The system is

    unaffected by weather and provides a worldwide common grid reference system.


  • Scenario-Based Training in TAA Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) A set of rules governi