Right person to right job c.trepanier
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Transcript of Right person to right job c.trepanier
- 1. To assign the right person to the right job
who masters the requiredskills
in orderthatoneswork output meets the organizationsneeds for operations and sustainablegrowth
Professional in measurement, assesssment anddevelopment of skills
Extended version of a scientific communication deliveredat the 2008 Annualconference of the Canadian EducationalResearchers Association (http://www.csse.ca/CERA/home.htm)
Copyright 2010. All rightsreserved.
Study of researchproblem
Selected a skills typologies
Applications of skills typologies
3. 1. Practicalproblemaddressed
Researchobject : Skills set of a position
Problem observed: Teachers and workplace trainers cannot easily reusejob skills set, as defined by employers, to design courses aimed at developing skills in a valid and effective fashion.
Drawbacks :The skillsdevelopeddontyield optimal correlationwithskillsexpected in the job, theydontyield optimal performance (effectiveness = results) and competence(efficiency = use of resources).
4. Cost of the problem
The World Bank finances about US$720 million in training every year, through both its lending projects and its in-house World Bank Institute (WBI).
The evaluation found that while most of the training reviewed resulted in demonstrable participant learning, this learning frequently did not lead to real change in participants' workplace performance.
Poor training outcomes most often resulted from training content that wasn't relevant to the needs and goals of the target institutions, or from the trainees' lack of incentives or resources to apply learning in their workplaces.
These findings highlight how important it is for training to be embedded in broader capacity-building programs that identify and address organizational and institutional capacity constraints alongside human ones.
Source : www.worldbank.org/ieg/training,
Cost = billions of dollars $wastedeachyearworldwide
5. 2. Study of researchproblem
Research problem :
- How to define the skills set of a position in order to measure, assess and develop them in a valid and reliable fashion ?
- teachers and workplace trainers can easily reuse job skills set, as defined by employers, to design courses aimed at developing skills in a valid and effective fashion.
Hence enabling us as educational researchers, to become better at:
Identifiyng skills to develop;
Measuring ans assessing skills.
6. 2. Study of researchproblem
1. Problem observed within two Delphi sessions on ICT skills set definition www.ictc-ctic.ca.
2. Studied occupational skills Profile Models (frameworks).
3. Studied various skills typologies.
4. Draw specifications for a universal skills typology deemed universal (workplace and classroom).
7. What happened
A facilitator asked experts of a workplace position (Intellectual Property Manager), to validate proposed set of accountabilities and skills, to precise them and to propose additional ones.
2.1 Problemobservedwithin Delphi sessions
The expert discuss until a consensus is reached
8. Observed accountabilities and skills through practical experience alone
Scope of essential
accountabilities and skills for a job
Accountabilities and skills which cannot be observed by practical experience alone
2.1 Problemobservedwithin Delphi sessions
Job experts recalled their experience of the job activities and competencies only through their memory, hence inducing biases : interpretations, unbalanced weightings, emotive recalls, etc..
9. About the validity of the sessions
It is fine for experts to recall past experiences and memories of a position to define accountabilities and skills.
1. How can they be confident they have covered all aspects?
2. How do they know they have not been too focused on certain aspects and omitted some?
3. Can they ensure their wording of competencies and skills can be reused by teachers in order to design courses developing and assessing exactly the competencies sought?
How valid were the accountabilities and skills hence defined ?
There are hence serious limitations stemming from the absence of an underlying conceptual framework in teaching and learning
2.2 StudiedOccupationalSkillsProfile Models (frameworks)
Logical representation of factors contributing to understanding, developing and managing occupational skills.
DACUM (Developing a Curriculum)
Tasks, knowledge, behaviour, skills, tools and equipment
Competency A Prepare meals
Sub-competency A1 Buy food
Sub-competency A2 Wash food
Sub-competency A3 Cut food
CSTD Training Competency Architecture
Analyzing performance/training needs
Coaching the application of training
11. 2.2 StudiedOccupationalSkillsProfile Models (frameworks)
1. Mainly facts, information and tasks-based.
2. Most are groupings of competencies in homogeneous categories, sometimes in a sequence of visible tasks.
3. None based on any theories (educational, organizational, psychological).
4. Equivocal relation between activity, competency and skill : a skill is the capacity to undertake an activity. Circular definitions.
5. Wording of skills using a languages syntax, no framework used. How one can be sure a skill is properly worded ?
6. Non-systemic, loosely structured frameworks.
7. None enable alignement of workplace and human capital resources.
12. 2.3 Studiedvariousskills typologies
Typology of skills typologies
1. Based on groups of skills applications (areas in which they are used)
- Very loosely defined. Not grounded much in theories
13. No clear statement guidelines. Proned to interpretations. 14. Proned to mainly state visible behaviors (tasks) 15. Knowledge 16. Attitude 17. Know-how 18. Knowledge 19. Declarative Knowledge 20. Process knowledge 21. Cognitivism-based 22. What about other peoples dimensions ? Affectivity, social, imagination, physical skills ?2. Skills based on a framework of learning styles and experiential learning theory (domain specific)
- Grounded in theory
23. Observable and measurable behaviors 24. Cover most of a persons skills areas 25. Not integrated within a framework preventing inclusion of common skills traits