Resolving conflicts

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  • 1. ER$ Consulting Services Presents For CMACredit Management Association MembersOn Conflict Resolution August 11, 2009 Webinar Copyright Eddy A. Sumar 2009

2. By Eddy A. Sumar, MBA, CCE, CICE 3.

  • Agenda
  • Defining conflict
  • Reasons for conflict
  • Handling conflict [conflict management]
  • Practical steps to conflict resolution
  • Final thoughts
  • Answer the question:
    • What is theReal focus of conflict resolution?

4. Defining Conflict 5. Conflict means anydifferencebetween two or more persons growing out of some matter that one person wants from another. Theodore Keel, 1999 6. When we use the term conflict, were referring toperceivedincompatible differences resulting in some form of interference or opposition.Whether differences are real or not is irrelevant.If people in a group perceive that differences exist, then a conflict state exists. Robbins & Coulter, 1999 7. We define conflict as adisagreementthrough which theparties involved perceive a threatto theirneeds ,interests or concerns . 8. 9. Reasons for Conflict 10.

  • Pride & Prejudice
  • Greed
  • Imperfections
  • Scarce resources (water, oil, food, land)
  • Jurisdictional ambiguities, Independence
  • Personality clashes
  • Power difference
  • Status difference
  • Goals, desires
  • Values, interests
  • Beliefs, principles

Reasons for Conflict 11.

  • Culture difference
  • Needs difference[ Maslow's Pyramid ]
  • Threats
  • Fear
  • Injustices
  • Communication breakdown
  • Lack of communication
  • Perceptions
  • Emotions
  • Attitude
  • Honor
  • Lack of action, etc.

Reasons for Conflict 12.

  • Communication styles
  • Personality differences
  • Breach of contract
  • Quality issues
  • Terms & conditions
  • Customer defaults
  • Misalignment of goals
  • Lack of understanding
  • Insecurities, fear
  • Lack of leadership
  • Roles
  • Gap between company culture and individual culture
  • Loss of respect, etc.

Reasons for Conflict in a Business Setting 13.

  • Psychological
  • Physiological
  • Political
  • Socio-cultural
  • Anthropological
  • Philosophical
  • Religious
  • Physical
  • Legal
  • Internal/external
  • Functional/operational
  • Gender-based, etc

Reasons for Conflict 14. Views about Conflict 15.

  • Traditional View:conflict is bad and must be avoided
  • Human Relations View : conflict is natural and inevitable.It is not necessarily bad or negative.It could be a positive force
  • Interactionist View : Conflict is positive and some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.( Some conflict could be destructive )
  • Realists View : Conflict is neither positive nor negative in and of itself.It is how we handle conflict that could prove negative or positive
  • The New View : Conflict can serve as opportunities for mutual growthcan bring out alternative ways of thinking and behavingconflict is an outgrowth of diversity

Views About Conflict 16. Handling Conflict Styles 17. Five (5) Classical Styles 18. 19. Daft 20. 21. Daft 22. Avoidance:withdrawal or suppression of conflict.This is used when emotions are running high and time is needed to cool down.Robbins & Coulter 23. Dr. Weeks 24. 25. Daft 26. Dr. Weeks 27. 28. Daft 29. Johnson, 1990 30. 31. Daft 32. Robbins & Coulter 33. Redefining Conflict Resolution 34. 35. Introducing A New Approach 36. Source: Dr. Weeks, The Eight Essential Steps to Conflict Resolution Our Aim : The Top Level of the Pyramid 37. 38. The Conflict Partnership Approachdeals with the conflict in a way that opens up possibilities for improving the relationship as well as resolving the conflict at hand.It sees the specific conflict as just one part of the relationship.The goal is not to defeat the other party and seize a temporaryadvantage, but rather to develop a sustainable resolution of the conflict, made possible in part because an improvement in the relationship has been established.Conflict Partnership is a transformation. Dr. Weeks 39. An Integrative Foursquare Approach P-SAP 40. Integrative Approach to Conflict Resolution

  • Psychological perspective
  • Sociological perspective
  • Anthropological perspective
  • Political perspective

41. Integrative Approach

  • Psychological Perspective

42. Integrative Approach

  • Psychological perspective

43. Integrative Approach

  • Sociological Perspective

Perception could be basedon wrong premise 44. Integrative Approach

  • Anthropological Perspective

Anthropologically,groups in organizations act very much like real tribes; they have their own dialects, values, histories, ways of thinking, and rules for appropriate behaviorEach tribe or culture has its own rules that govern its thinking and behavior and that these rules usually operate at a subconscious level. 45. [ Migrate & Link ] Integrative Approach 46. Integrative Approach

  • Political Perspective

Bargain & Negotiate 47. Applying the P-SAP to your conflict partner Facilitators 48.

  • Always keep the lines of communication open
  • Show cooperation.Seek collaboration
  • Offer alternatives, options, and solutions.Do not be part of the problem, be part of the solution
  • Define, measure, evaluate, assess, and readjust your response and behavior to adapt to your partners needs
  • Apologize
  • Invoke third parties or experts to get over impasses or obstacles
  • Never corner your partner
  • Allow your partner to save face

Applying the P-SAP 49.

  • D: Dont allow yourself to lose your cool
  • E: Encourage your partner to vent his anger
  • F: Find out the facts
  • U: Understand his feelings
  • S: Suggest a solution
  • E: End on a positive note
  • Co mmunications Briefings
  • Avoid the pitfalls

Applying the P-SAP--Facilitator Learn to DEFUSE 50. Key Success Factor Know the Matrix 51. Willing Unable Able Unwilling 52. Both Parties must be able and Willing to resolve it Compromise Avoiding Accommodating Competing Willing Unable Able Collaborating Unwilling 53. Both Parties must be Able and Willing to resolve a conflict Compromise 50/50 Stuck in the middle

  • Avoiding
  • Loss of focus
  • Silent killer to the relationship
  • Cancer
  • No solution
  • Lost opportunity
  • Lose-lose
  • Accommodating
  • Short-term focus
  • Placates the relationship
  • Band-aid approach
  • Temporary solution
  • Lost opportunity
  • Lose-win
  • Competing
  • Short-term focus
  • Extremely myopic
  • Destroys relationships
  • Victor-victim
  • Lost opportunities
  • Win-lose

Willing Unable Able

  • Collaborating
  • Long-term focus
  • Enhances relationships
  • Maintains goodwill
  • Satisfies mutual needs
  • Creative solutions
  • Win-win

Unwilling 54. Practical Steps to Conflict Resolution No fixed formula No one-size-fits-all 55.

  • Confront the Opposing Party [let the other party know of the conflict]
  • Define the Conflict Together
  • Communicate Personal Positions and Feelings
  • Express Your Cooperative Intentions
  • Understand the Conflict from the Other Party's Viewpoint
  • Be Motivated to Negotiate in Good Faith
  • Reach an Agreement

Practical Steps to Resolve a ConflictJohnson 1990 (using the collaborative style) 56.

  • Create an effective atmosphere
  • Clarify perceptions
  • Focus on individual and shared needs
  • Build shared positive power
  • Look to the future, then learn from the past
  • Generate options
  • Develop doables : The stepping-stones to action
  • Make mutual-benefitsagreements

Practical Steps to Resolve a ConflictDr. Weeks 1992 (eight essential steps to conflict resolution) 57.

  • Foster a trusting relationship
  • Discuss mutual and complimentary interests
  • Have an open exchange of what each party wants
  • Discuss alternatives and options
  • Strive to reach a result that satisfies both parties
  • Exchange greetings

Practical Steps to Resolve a ConflictDoyle & Haydock 1991 (without the punches) 58.

  • Adversarial relationships
  • Attempt to persuade each other of the correctness of their positions, instead of attempting to resolve the differences
  • Failure to define the issues
  • Become stubborn and refuse to engage in mutually beneficial compromises
  • Strong personality clashes
  • Engaging in one-way dialogue

Practical Steps to Resolve a ConflictAvoid the pitfalls [Why the failure?] 59. Final Thoughts 60.

  • Listen, listen, listen to the conflict partner
  • Keep the lines of communication open
  • Seek options and alternatives
  • Be courteous; show respect.Always h onor and respect your partner(s)
  • Acknowledge their fears, feelings, emotions, and needs
  • Respect their point of view
  • Do not fall into the I versus them atmosphere
  • Do not lock yourself into rigid demands
  • Understand the power of perception

Final Thoughts 61.

  • Look into feelings, emotions and commonalities
  • Focus on thoughts, needs & wants
  • Ask questions
  • Show interest in your partner
  • Attack the issues not the person
  • Do not stereotype
  • Reach for positive power
  • Seek doables
  • Use differences for mutual growth
  • Be honest and sincere
  • Avoid ploys , games and manipulations

Final Thoughts 62. Wikipedia 63. Real Focus 64. What is the main objective of conflict resolution? What is the Real focus? Conclusion: An ounce of prevention better than a pound of cure Maintaining& StrengtheningRelationships 65.

  • C : Collaboration
  • O : Options
  • N: Needs
  • F: Feelings
  • L:Listening &learning
  • I:Interests
  • C: Concerns
  • T: Thoughts
  • R : Relationship
  • E : Empowerment
  • S: Solutions
  • O: Opportunities
  • L:Long-term value & focus
  • U:Unlock creativity
  • T: Trust & time
  • I: Inviting, inspiring, initiate
  • O: Open-minded
  • N: Nurture

66. A focus on interests can resolve the problem underlying the dispute more effectively than a focus on rights or power. Ury, Brett, & Goldberg 67. 68. Thank You!