Religious Tourism or Dark Tourism Tourism or Dark Tourism ? Karel Werdler, Inholland University of...

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  • 14-11-2016

    1

    {

    Religious Tourism or Dark Tourism ?

    Karel Werdler, Inholland University of Applied Sciences

    Institute of Dark Tourism Research – IDTR

    October 7, 2016

    What is Dark Tourism ?

     Lennon & Foley (1996;2000), Sharpley & Stone 2009) :

    Dark Tourism  Seaton (1996), Johnston & Mandelartz (2016) :

    Thanatourism

     Sion ed. (2014) : Death Tourism

     Others : Morbid tourism, Holocaust tourism, Funerary

    tourism, Contested heritage (Ashworth), Slavery tourism, Crime tourism, Prison tourism, Fright tourism, Grief tourism, Disaster tourism, Doomsday tourism, Toxic Tourism

    Seaton (1996) : Thanatopsis, thanatourism

     Travel to see death (executions)

     Travel to see places where people died (Flanders fields….)

     Travel to burial sites and monuments

     Travel to re-enactments

     Travel to synthetic locations such as museums where memento of the dead are exposed

    Definition :

    “ Dark tourism is the act of travel to sites associated with death, suffering and the seemingly macabre..” (Stone, 2006)

    Spectrum from light to dark…..

    Stone (2006):..from light to dark...

    Dark fun factories ( Dungeons Theme attraction)

    Dark exhibitions (Body Worlds)

    Dark dungeons (Robben Island)

    Dark resting places (Highgate/London)

    Dark shrines ( Graceland, USA)

    Dark conflict sites (Flanders Fields)

    Dark camps of Genocide

    https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjqrcyS6LvPAhVHWRoKHVM4DxwQjRwIBw&url=http://takeielts.britishcouncil.org/recognising-organisation/inholland-university-rotterdam&psig=AFQjCNHolDIg7jNvCc7yazYzdWqLnfoggw&ust=1475487146920175 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjbxdehsYnPAhVBsBQKHXklCCQQjRwIBw&url=http://swimmerbabebex.wix.com/darktourism

  • 14-11-2016

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    Dark resting place/shrine

    St.Peter’s catacombs

    Places where people died

    (Religious) conflict site

    Camps of genocide

    https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiK0qe9_azPAhVLWBoKHRyRBDcQjRwIBw&url=http://www.flickriver.com/photos/8449304@N04/6163889982/&bvm=bv.133700528,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNEEPeDe9wtcHrLggX6ZHKB_ZNx2ig&ust=1474977484959371 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiAjI7t_azPAhVF2hoKHQZfCm4QjRwIBw&url=http://www.grabadoantiguo.com/ficha.php?id=15609&bvm=bv.133700528,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNF5Bfo39bEm0nZ7hc6wXYihPfEGpQ&ust=1474977541990170 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwi0mb7897vPAhXEPBQKHbLjCNAQjRwIBw&url=http://www.scavi.va/content/scavi/en/ufficio-scavi.html&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNFCDZOfR0C2zK3EJPeT4xbklQMrRg&ust=1475491315755927 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjIsNiA_LvPAhWDvBQKHcHMADEQjRwIBw&url=https://www.pinterest.com/pin/315744623851787941/&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNGDA96QJMrDQbtdQfGW7EINDcKIbA&ust=1475492462133576 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjIsNiA_LvPAhWDvBQKHcHMADEQjRwIBw&url=https://www.pinterest.com/pin/315744623851787941/&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNGDA96QJMrDQbtdQfGW7EINDcKIbA&ust=1475492462133576 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjr_Mqv-LvPAhVEzxQKHeh6ASYQjRwIBw&url=http://www.theaussienomad.com/featured-photos/the-colosseum-iconic-rome/&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNGcDpYgmoydmWHzwyOrB4BgWMdPtw&ust=1475491510101455 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiw58mB-bvPAhWDaxQKHX8zBmMQjRwIBw&url=https://www.thereligionofpeace.com/pages/articles/ira-islam.aspx&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNGJrau5y-PK5aZgIUUzyj7Xz8rzWg&ust=1475491644473905 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjGh_2n-bvPAhVGcRQKHSA2DoIQjRwIBw&url=http://ndla.no/en/node/90019&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNGJrau5y-PK5aZgIUUzyj7Xz8rzWg&ust=1475491644473905 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjuoLL3-bvPAhUEWhQKHY32DeMQjRwIBw&url=http://www.pathways.cz/tour.php?id=68&cat=&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNHs2lvM6ccCBsukrAnR1hTV2g7-kQ&ust=1475491915688738

  • 14-11-2016

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     Travel to burial sites/resting places/shrines and monuments (Seaton/Stone)

     Travel to places where people died (Seaton)

     Travel to Dark conflict sites (Stone)

     Travel to Dark camps of genocide (Stone)

    These dark tourism places can often be related to religious tourism sites, but…..motivation/emotions ?

     Religious e.g. pilgrimage

     Historical, heritage

     Cultural Antropological

     Self fullfilment

     Must-see

     Curiousity

     Looking for the macabre/Horror

     Other or combinations

    Motivation ?

    Macabre enjoyment ?

    But not just a western phenomenon (Mecca)

    https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjPhYeY_KzPAhUB2BoKHaebDOUQjRwIBw&url=http://theskullsociety.com/empire-of-death-by-paul-koudounaris/&psig=AFQjCNHXQzb6CGET3Su0jcWvoiPadRnENw&ust=1474976901841346 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=&url=http://www.logsoku.com/r/2ch.sc/male/1458479044/&psig=AFQjCNHXQzb6CGET3Su0jcWvoiPadRnENw&ust=1474976901841346 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwirq57v_rvPAhWENxQKHatZCPgQjRwIBw&url=http://photovide.com/death-jewelry/&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNGQj3NGjF2v6o0c6ZwMr-FMWqaUcQ&ust=1475493257915251 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjBlISB_KzPAhUGvRoKHY65DyoQjRwIBw&url=http://theskullsociety.com/empire-of-death-by-paul-koudounaris/&psig=AFQjCNHXQzb6CGET3Su0jcWvoiPadRnENw&ust=1474976901841346 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjq043C_rvPAhXDtxQKHfqqB1sQjRwIBw&url=http://czechrepublica.weebly.com/kutna-hora.html&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNEyWNPULUk4mlQJ9sZkR6Yag2f6tg&ust=1475493134727141 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjiuLHK_7vPAhUH7BQKHVamBTwQjRwIBw&url=http://english.alarabiya.net/en/special-reports/hajj-2014/2014/10/06/Paying-money-for-hajj-rituals-by-proxy-illegal-scholar-claims.html&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d2s&psig=AFQjCNEDGmI7DJ4Paab5tt4jNnyIPGO3fQ&ust=1475493382276302

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    4

    Blood fountain, Teheran

    Hindu procession, Madras

    Dia de Muertos, Mexico

    McKercher and Du Cros

    Cultural

    Tourism

    Dark Tourism

    Religious Tourism

    Conclusion

    https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwje4qL0n77PAhXBQBQKHbEfB_QQjRwIBw&url=http://www.thetower.org/article/we-dont-want-to-forget-in-tehran-revenge-is-a-national-ethos/&psig=AFQjCNHdhzW3v5CkcWt27qgih_SDBJIWzA&ust=1475570792260102 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwist7qioL7PAhWBWBQKHQuJBM4QjRwIBw&url=http://www.patheos.com/blogs/progressivesecularhumanist/2014/11/shia-muslims-mark-holy-day-with-bloody-self-mutilation-nsfl/&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d24&psig=AFQjCNE2GCs9ePkbhVKKYrt1Vw_GinMPoQ&ust=1475570928623872 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiY1YDNoL7PAhUD7xQKHUzVAB0QjRwIBw&url=http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2016/05/sanatana-dharma-hinduism-exhumed-and_23.html&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d24&psig=AFQjCNF5J4XyIURvVULO6f-oZlRP-vfDaQ&ust=1475570987671750 https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwjc3YXkoL7PAhXHvxQKHXDCAAoQjRwIBw&url=http://sf.funcheap.com/dia-de-los-muertos-procession-festival-altars-sf/&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d24&psig=AFQjCNHzewmrI-a76Z999hUZcSaKht5XXQ&ust=1475571070148306&cad=rjt https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjQis-uob7PAhUHuBQKHYsgAPUQjRwIBw&url=https://www.researchgate.net/figure/224830622_fig2_Fig-2-The-typology-of-cultural-tourist-by-McKercher-and-Du-Cros&bvm=bv.134495766,d.d24&psig=AFQjCNHOVcpfTAiw2wZnBuUR78z4sqff7g&ust=1475571193223599