Quiz 2 review final

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  • Gallery Presentations Feedback11/4/11

  • Great team work and collaboration, a hallmark of school programsGood inquiry techniques involved your audienceGood follow up questions, e.g.: what do you see that makes you say that? Shows you are listening, validates the speaker, deepens the discussionGood paraphrasing: So youre saying that Good use of call and responseGood tableaux!


  • Stories must be really briefjust the basic informationNot a good idea to refer to outside information e.g. a book that you think is popular with young people (what if your group hasnt read it?)Not a good idea to talk about another artwork that is not the one they are looking atRemember: we are training you for school programs, so practice your gallery sessions with that audience as a focus unless we say otherwise

    All in all excellent gallery presentations!


  • Review11/4/11

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  • The View from Galleries 2, 3 & 4Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism600-1600 Eastern, Central/Western, and Southern India*

  • Who is it? Subject/iconographyWhat is it made of? Material/ techniquesWhere was it originally? OriginWhen? Historical context, date

    Why significant? Any of the above


  • After Austerities, Meditation*

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  • First Sermon4 Noble TruthsLife is sufferingThe suffering has a causeThe cause is attachmentBreak attachment by following the 8-fold Path

    Wheel of the Law (8-fold Path)Right viewsRight aspirationsRight speechRight conductRight livelihoodRight effortRight mindfulness Right contemplation


  • *MiraclesBirth

    Victory over Mara, Bodh Gaya (upper left)

    First Sermon, Deer Park Sarnath

    Shravasti miracles: mango tree, multiple Buddhas

    Descent from Indra's heaven after having preached to his deceased mother (lower left)

    Monkey's offering (upper right)

    Taming of the enraged elephant (lower right)


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  • Who/What?When?What religion?Where from?Material?*

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    First Sermon, 475CE, Central India, Sarnath, Chunar sandstone

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  • Vishnu*

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  • Shiva, Shiva Everywhere*

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  • Insert Shiva Nataraja here, please!*

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    Oh great Ganesh! As we begin our circumambulation through Galleries 2, 3 & 4, please help us! Three religions! A thousand years of sculpture! So many obstacles! *Just when you think you can tell Buddha from Shiva, things get interesting! Not all beautiful multi-armed female deities are Hindu, not all guys wearing jewelry are bodhisattvas, and not all meditative sitters are the Buddha. Ive purposely made these images small to make the point that at a distance, things are getting blurry. But the ground plan is your friend. As you will have noticed in your studies, Buddhist art is only in gallery 2 and Jain art is only in gallery 3. Hindu art is in all three galleries, but theres a shift of emphasis from Vishnu to Shiva, and the addition of female counterparts to some of the male gods. You might also notice the dominant materials in each gallery: black stone, sandstone & marble, bronze & granite. These are groupings that you might want to point out to visitors as evidence of regionalism, a big theme for South Asia and the museum as a whole: local beliefs and practices.*Remind you of categories you will want to be comfortable with for next weeks quiz. GO THROUGH THEM

    The quiz will be shorter than last time. There will be 10 ids and an objective section, probably fill in the blanks again. No map. No chronological exercise. I will be here to answer questions so if you are not clear on anything, please ask me so I can clarify. Since you are now familiar with the quiz and all know you are able to pass it, to put it mildly, I am not going to set up a practice quiz here per se. You all clearly know how to memorize facts about art objects. So Id like to suggest ways of thinking about the material more thematically and locating it in the context of religions trends or historical realities.

    *Our introduction to the Buddhas biography in Gallery 1 emphasized elements that were popular in the art of the Kushan dynasty but there are other parts of the story we can add in now. For instance, when prince Siddartha left the palace, first he tried the path of the ascetic, practicing fasting and austerities suggested by this type of emaciated Buddha. This story might refer to the path of extreme non-violence taken by Mahavira, the Jain patriarch, somewhat before Siddarthas time. The Buddha-to-be determined this was too restrictive a path to enlightenment. Instead he advocated living a life in the middle between the luxurious but empty life of the palace and the strictures of life in the wilderness, he found the Middle Way and his concentrated meditation led to enlightenment. *During the Kushan and Gupta dynasties, the subject of the Buddha preaching was the most popular one. *This is what he was preaching: the 4 noble truths and the 8-fold path by which enlightenment can be achieved and release from the cycle of rebirth. Forrest warned us not to get sucked into numerology, and we are not trying to turn you all into theologians, so these are just for your own edification.*While we remember the birth, victory over Mara, first sermon, and the parinirvana from Gandharan reliefs in Gallery 1, the other 4 events werent part of the original canonical events. They became more important during the Pala period when pilgrims from all over the Buddhist world were making their way to Bodh Gaya and presumably taking back souvenirs with them. Miracles and pilgrimages seem to go hand-in-hand

    Birth The victory over the demon Mara @ Bodh GayaThe first preaching @ SarnathThe miracles of ShravastiThe descent from Indra's heaven after after the Buddha had preached to his deceased motherThe monkey's offeringThe taming of the enraged elephantDeath

    *Back in gallery one, you were implicitly comparing Buddhist sculptures. Comparisons like this help you identify the hallmarks of different regions or time periods. Susan and your mentors will go into this in more detail today.

    Just to remind you of this classic compare/contrast: same subject (Seated Buddha), different mudras, different materials and manner of execution which we can call style. Places to identify the style: how are body forms & facial features rendered? Drapery? Simple halos, ushnisha (wisdom), urna (light of universe, not 3rd eye of Hindu gods), brow like an Indian bow, mudra (hand gestures meaning no fear, and turning the wheel of the law), hands and feet with wheel of law. Lions on base, donors. Same symbols, Different styles: ushnisha as wavy haired bun vs. smooth cap with twirly topknot, body with skeleton beneath vs fleshy quality or air-filled, 3D robe folds vs. sheerness over body, even different kinds of stone give you a different feel: black schist vs red sandstone, sharp details vs. softer contours. *You can have the same material and manner of carving, with different religious figures. And what might that indicate about workshop practices or patronage?*You can have the same time period, similar materials, And different religions. 5th C,; similar style to facial features (almond eyes, Indian bow eyebrows) and approach to areas of dense carving vs. areas of smooth stone, masterful areas of 3D carving. Gupta period sculpture often out of Chunar sandstone that is not red but creamy color and can take a high polish; very crisp details in areas of dense ornament set against flat areas of stone: halo/inner halo, head/face; beautiful 3D details like the hem of his robe fanned out on his pedestal and suggesting a lotus (symbol of?), or his toes against his legs and the sleeves of his robe. Very broad shoulders, slender torso (like a lion), full of air; his gaze is more like that of the Gandharan, remote, otherworldly, than the happy extroverted Mathuran buddhas.*

    Standing Buddha with devotee, 500-700 Eastern India, Bihar state, Chlorite

    Not too hard to see how this work from the AAM is in the Gupta lineage, though less refined than the masterpiece on the right. With this distinctive black stone, we are moving east. *LEFT Crowned Buddha with 4 scenes of his life, 1050-1100, Eastern India, Bihar state, stone

    RIGHT The Buddha triumphing over Mara, 900-1000, Eastern India, Bihar state, stone

    And these qualities of the body, drapery, and ornament continue under the Pala and Sena dynasties in Eastern India from the 8th-12th centuries. There are dated sculptures from this era that allow dating within the Pal-Sena period. Overall the trend was toward greater complexity, both of what was being depicted (more complicated iconography that competes with the central image) and how is was being sculpted (more and more detail). Stiffening body and facial features, pointier chin (parrot beak nose). Importance of earth touching mudra Shakyamuni Buddha: central image at Bodh Gaya so influential across pilgrimage routes. Take a moment to acknowledge the growing complexity you see in Gallery 2. For instance, a crowned Buddha! (begins in 6th C In Kashmir and spreads to rest of India by 8th C as means of showing Buddhas universality, new parts of his biography coming to the fore, and new bodhisattvas. *LEFT Plaque with scenes of the life of the Buddha, 1000-1200, Bihar state, Pyrophyllite, 1991.224

    RIGHT The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, approx. 900-1000, Bihar, B63S44+

    Souvenirs with miracles, and new emphasis on the bodhisattva of compassion, avaolakiteshvara. Here shown with lotus and stupas, ID from buddha in headdress but