Purificacion de Biodiesel crudo

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Refining technologies for the purification of crude biodiesel I.M. Atadashi, M.K. Aroua , A.R. Abdul Aziz, N.M.N. Sulaiman Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia article info Article history: Received 14 February 2011 Received in revised form 13 May 2011 Accepted 18 May 2011 Available online 1 July 2011 Keywords: Biodiesel refining Wet washing Dry washing Membrane refining and biodiesel quality abstract In biodiesel production, downstream purification is an important step in the overall process. This article is a critical review of the most recent research findings pertaining to biodiesel refining technologies. Both conventional refining technologies and the most recent biodiesel membrane refining technology are reviewed. The results obtained through membrane purification showed some promise in term of biodie- sel yield and quality. Also, membranes presented low water consumption and less wastewater dis- charges. Therefore, exploration and exploitation of membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel is necessary. Furthermore, the success of membrane technology in the purification of crude biodiesel could serve as a boost to both researchers and industries in an effort to achieve high purity and quality biodiesel fuel capable of replacing non-renewable fossil fuel, for wide range of applications. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Contents 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................ 4239 2. Biodiesel separation technologies ....................................................................................... 4240 3. Biodiesel wet washing technologies ..................................................................................... 4241 3.1. Dionized water washing technology ............................................................................... 4242 3.2. Acids and dionized water washing technology ....................................................................... 4243 3.3. Organic solvents washing technology .............................................................................. 4244 4. Dry washing technologies ............................................................................................. 4244 4.1. Magnesol ..................................................................................................... 4245 4.2. Washing with ion exchange resins................................................................................. 4245 4.3. Washing with other dry washing agents ............................................................................ 4246 5. Biodiesel membrane refining technology ................................................................................. 4246 5.1. Organic membranes ............................................................................................ 4246 5.2. Ceramic membranes ............................................................................................ 4246 5.3. Prospects of biodiesel membranes refining technology ................................................................ 4246 6. Advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel refining technologies ............................................................. 4248 7. Conclusions and recommendations ...................................................................................... 4249 References ......................................................................................................... 4249 1. Introduction Today, continuous increase in World energy consumption, fuel price hike, depletion of non-renewable fossil fuels and global warming effects are among the greatest challenges facing the globe [1]. Also environmental concerns have drastically increased glob- ally over the past decade, particularly after the Earth Summit ’92 [2]. Thus, the most viable approach to meet this rising demand, de- crease greenhouse gas emissions and minimize the effects of fossil fuels depletion is by exploring alternative renewable energy sources [3–5]. Biofuels, particularly biodiesel is such a fuel that shows great potential to replace petro-diesel [6–8]. Biofuels are commonly known to offer several advantages over fossil fuel such as sustainability, biodegradability, lower greenhouse gas emis- sions, regional development, social structure and agriculture development, and fuel security supply [9,10]. Further, replacing petro-diesel with biodiesel fuel could reduce the accumulation of 0306-2619/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.05.029 Corresponding author. Tel.: +60 3 79674615; fax: +60 3 79675319. E-mail address: [email protected] (M.K. Aroua). Applied Energy 88 (2011) 4239–4251 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied Energy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apenergy

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Purificacion de Biodiesel crudo

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    1. Introduction

    Today, continuous increase in World energy consumption, fuelprice hike, depletion of non-renewable fossil fuels and globalwarming effects are among the greatest challenges facing the globe[1]. Also environmental concerns have drastically increased glob-ally over the past decade, particularly after the Earth Summit 92

    [2]. Thus, the most viable approach to meet this rising demand, de-crease greenhouse gas emissions and minimize the effects of fossilfuels depletion is by exploring alternative renewable energysources [35]. Biofuels, particularly biodiesel is such a fuel thatshows great potential to replace petro-diesel [68]. Biofuels arecommonly known to offer several advantages over fossil fuel suchas sustainability, biodegradability, lower greenhouse gas emis-sions, regional development, social structure and agriculturedevelopment, and fuel security supply [9,10]. Further, replacingpetro-diesel with biodiesel fuel could reduce the accumulation of

    Corresponding author. Tel.: +60 3 79674615; fax: +60 3 79675319.

    Applied Energy 88 (2011) 42394251

    Contents lists availab

    lseE-mail address: [email protected] (M.K. Aroua).5.2. Ceramic membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42465.3. Prospects of biodiesel membranes refining technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4246

    6. Advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel refining technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42487. Conclusions and recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4249

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42491. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. Biodiesel separation technologies3. Biodiesel wet washing technologi

    3.1. Dionized water washing te3.2. Acids and dionized water w3.3. Organic solvents washing

    4. Dry washing technologies . . . . . .4.1. Magnesol . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2. Washing with ion exchang4.3. Washing with other dry w

    5. Biodiesel membrane refining tech5.1. Organic membranes . . . . .0306-2619/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Adoi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.05.029. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4239

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4240

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4241gy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4242technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4243

    ogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4244. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4244. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4245. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4245agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4246. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4246. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4246Contentset washingry washingembrane rening and biodiesel quality

    serve as a boost to both researchers and industries in an effort to achieve high purity and quality biodieselfuel capable of replacing non-renewable fossil fuel, for wide range of applications.

    2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.ds:el rening

    sel yield and quality. Also, membranes presented low water consumption and less wastewater dis-charges. Therefore, exploration and exploitation of membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel isnecessary. Furthermore, the success of membrane technology in the purication of crude biodiesel couldvailable online 1 July 2011reviewed. The results obtained through membrane purication showed some promise in term of biodie-history:d 14 February 2011d in revised form 13 May 2011d 18 May 2011

    In biodiesel production, downstream purication is an important step in the overall process. This articleis a critical review of the most recent research ndings pertaining to biodiesel rening technologies. Bothconventional rening technologies and the most recent biodiesel membrane rening technology arerticlei c l e i n f o a b s t r a c tM. Atadashi, M.K. Aroua , A.R. Abdul Aziz, N.M.N. Sulaimanhemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaI.

    Rening technologies for the purication of crude biodieselApplied

    journal homepage: www.ell rights reserved.le at ScienceDirect


    vier .com/locate /apenergy

  • phase from glycerol phase [23]. However, the separation processbetween biodiesel and glycerol can be difcult in the presence of

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    Enegreen house gases such as CO2 in the atmosphere [11,12]. Also bio-diesel fuel has been commonly found to offer similar engine per-formance to that of petro-diesel fuel, whilst reducing engineemissions of particulates, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide [13].

    Biodiesel fuel is usually produced from virgin and used vegeta-ble oils and animal fats [10,14]. Presently several efforts are madeto produce biodiesel from microalgae. Microalgae clearly offers afew advantages among others include: much higher biomass pro-ductivities than land plants (doubling times may be as short as3.5 h), some species can accumulate up to 2050% triacylglycerols,while no high-quality agricultural land is necessary to grow thebiomass, and even no land at all, offshore microalgae farming couldbe a reasonable alternative [15]. Conventionally, the triglyceridesof fats and oils are transesteried using short-chain alcohol suchas methanol and ethanol in the presence of alkali catalysts. Also,acid catalysts are used for the transesterication reaction [16,17].Transesterication reaction is the most adopted process for biodie-sel production [18,19].

    At the end of transesterication, biodiesel is mostly separatedvia gravitational settling or centrifugation. The crude biodiesel isthen puried and dried to meet the stringent international stan-dard specication provided by EN14214 [20]. Otherwise the con-taminants could reduce biodiesel quality and affects engineperformance as shown in Table 1. The production of biodiesel usingalkaline catalysts such as sodium and potassium hydroxides(NaOH and KOH), and sodium and potassiummethoxides (CH3ONaand CH3OK), could provide higher biodiesel yield (>98%), but theprocess of biodiesel rening is complicated [21,22]. This is due tosoaps formation associated with alkaline catalyst [23]. Further,the formation of soap decreases biodiesel yield obtained after theclarication and separation stages. As well, the dissolved soaps in-crease the biodiesel solubility in glycerol, an additional cause ofyield loss [3]. However to mitigate the problems faced with theuse of homogeneous alkaline and acid catalysts, heterogeneouscatalysts such as solid and enzymes catalysts are developed and

    Table 1Negative effects of contaminants on biodiesel and engines.

    Contaminants Negative effect

    Methanol Deterioration of natural rubber seals and gaskets, lower asdensity values, Corrosion of pieces of Aluminum (Al) and Zi

    Water Reduces heat of combustion, corrosion of system componenformation), formation of ice crystals resulting to gelling of rpistons

    Catalyst/soap Damage injectors, pose corrosion problems in engines, plugFree fatty acids

    (FFAs)Less oxidation stability, corrosion of vital engine componen

    Glycerides Crystallization, turbidity, higher viscosities, and deposits forGlycerol Decantation, storage problem, fuel tank bottom deposits Inje

    of engine durability problems

    4240 I.M. Atadashi et al. / Appliedused during biodiesel production process [24,25].The purication of crude biodiesel is usually achieved via two

    notable techniques; wet and dry washings. Conventionally wetwashing is the most employed technique to remove impuritiessuch as soap, catalyst, glycerol and residual alcohol from biodiesel.However, the major disadvantage in the use of water to purify bio-diesel is increase in cost and production time [26]. Besides, separa-tion of biodiesel phase from water phase is difcult and produceslarge amount of wastewater. Thus for each litre of biodiesel, closeto 10 L of wastewater is produced [27]. Rening of crude biodieselalone accounts for 6080% of the total processing cost [28].

    Furthermore, dry washing technique (ion exchange resins andmagnesol powder) was introduced to substitute water washingto remove biodiesel contaminants. This technique is also employedin commercial plants to purify biodiesel [29]. However, the under-standing of the chemistry of dry washing substances is still skeletal[30].soaps formation, which mostly solidies and form a semi solid sub-stance [32]. This problem is usually circumvented using heteroge-neous catalysts [33,34]. Chew and Bhatia [24] stated thatseparation cost of homogeneous catalyst and high consumptionof energy and has pinched the need for the growth and develop-ment of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of biodiesel.Heterogeneous catalysts are simply estranged from the crude bio-diesel product and recyclable. Sharma et al. [22] stated that severalresearchers have tried heterogeneous catalysts to circumvent theproblem of time and water consumption encountered during alka-The difculties regarding operation of wet and dry washing pro-cesses for the purication of crude biodiesel have derived the dis-cussion on the use of membrane technology to purify crudebiodiesel. Biodiesel purication via membrane has so far shownto provide promising results, in addition to less water utilization[31]. In view of the above, more efforts need to be made to exploreand exploit better purication processes such as membranes toeffectively replace conventional biodiesel separation and washingtechniques. Thus, this study critically examines and reports onthe rening technologies employed to purify crude biodiesel.

    2. Biodiesel separation technologies

    The rst step usually employed to recover biodiesel aftertransesterication reaction is separation of crude biodiesel fromby-product, glycerol. The fast separation of biodiesel and glycerolis as a result of differences in their polarities and also signicantdifference in their densities. The density of biodiesel and glycerolare 0.88 gm/cc and 1.05 gm/cc or more respectively. The densityof glycerol is dependent on the amount of water, catalyst andmethanol present in it. This density difference is sufcient to em-ploy simple gravity separation technique to separate biodiesel

    oints (problems in storage, transport, and utilization, etc.), Lower viscosity andZn)such as fuel tubes and injector pumps) failure of fuel pump, hydrolysis (FFAsual fuel, Bacteriological growth causing blockage of lters, and Pitting in the

    of lters and weakening of engines

    tion at pistons, valves and injection Nozzlesfouling, settling problems, higher aldehydes and acrolein emissions, and severity

    rgy 88 (2011) 42394251li-biodiesel rening process. Table 2 presents reduced biodieselwater washing process using heterogeneous catalysts in biodieselproduction [35]. Zabeti et al. [36] reviewed biodiesel productionvia heterogeneous catalysts (solid catalysts). The authors notedthat heterogeneous catalysts are not dissolved or consumed duringtransesterication, therefore they are easily separated. This charac-teristic limits impurities and reduces cost of nal biodiesel productseparation. Additionally, the catalysts can be regenerated and re-used and as added advantage, the catalysts are environmentallyfriendly since the need to use acids, solvents and water during sep-aration stage is minimized. Also, Shimada et al. [33] reviewedenzymatic alcoholysis for biodiesel fuel production. Production ofbiodiesel via enzymes could alleviate separation difculties com-monly encountered with alkaline catalyst. The authors noted thatapplication of enzymes also minimizes large quantity of wastewa-ter generated via use of homogeneous catalyst. As well increase inpurity of biodiesel above 90% is achievable.

  • experimented tubular Al2O3/TiO2 ceramic membranes with ltra-

    Table 2Comparison between alkaline catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts on the purication of biodiesel (modied from Ref. [35]).

    Variable Alkaline catalysis Enzyme catalysis Solid catalyst

    Reaction temperature, C 6070 3040 453493Free fatty acids in raw materials Saponied products Alkyl esters Very lowWater in raw materials Inhibit transesterication reactioYield of methyl esters NormalRecovery of glycerol Difcult

    I.M. Atadashi et al. / Applied Energy 88 (2011) 42394251 4241Further, application of higher alcohols to oil ratios duringtransesterication could enhance the rate of biodiesel production.However, this process complicates removal of alcohol and increasethe cost of biodiesel purication [37]. Agarwal [2] reported thatconversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel is effected by alcohol tooil molar ratio ranging from 1:1 to 6:1 and noted conversion of9398% at a 6:1 M ratio. The author stated that alcohol to oil molarratios greater than 6:1 do not improve the yield of biodiesel above9899%, but could hinder the separation of glycerol from the prod-uct mixture.

    Also, to simplify biodiesel separation, production of biodieselthrough non-catalytic transesterication of vegetable oil withsupercritical methanol was proposed by Kusdiana and Saka [38]and Demirbas [39]. Kusdiana and Saka [38] observed post treat-ment of crude biodiesel produced via conventional methods tocause severe separation difculties, since several steps are requiredto remove the catalyst, glycerol, alcohol, soap, and glycerides, etc.They adopted supercritical methanol method under the followingconditions; temperature of 350 and 400 C, pressure of 4560 MPa, and molar ratio of 1:42 of the rapeseed oil to methanolwith the aim of circumventing problems associated with the com-mon method. They noted that supercritical methanol method forbiodiesel production consumed less energy, and present less sepa-ration difculties. Furthermore, Han et al. [40] investigated super-critical methanol technique using methanol to oil ratio of 24,temperature of 280 C, CO2 to methanol ratio of 0.1, and pressureof 14.3 MPa and achieved biodiesel yield of 98% within in 10 min.The authors noted that the process is practically viable in theindustry, safer, and less costly. However the process requires high-er temperatures and pressures ranging from 252402 C and 3560 MPa respectively [41].

    The separation between biodiesel and the by-product, glycerolis primary achieved through different techniques as presented inTable 3. Gomes et al. [45] remarked that separation of biodieselfrom glycerol via decantation is cost effective. However, the pro-cess requires a long period of time ranging from 1 to 8 h to achievegood separation [23]. Therefore to hasten products separation pro-cess, centrifugation technique is mostly employed. The process ofcentrifugation is fast, but the cost involve is considerably high [50].

    In recent times, membranes are applied to separate and purify

    Purication of methyl esters Repeated washingsProduction cost of catalyst Not exorbitantcrude biodiesel. The process seems to be promising providinghigh-quality biodiesel [51], besides being energy efcient [52].Dube et al. [53] investigated the application of membrane reactorto produce biodiesel fuel. The authors employed membrane reactor

    Table 3Techniques for the separation of biodiesel from transeste-ried product mixture.

    Technique Reference

    Gravitational settling [8,12,42]Centrifugation [3,25,43,44]Filtration [27,45,46]Decantation [23,45]Sedimentation [4749]tion area of 0.005 m2 and average pore size of 0.2, 0.4, and0.8 lm and the crude biodiesel was microltered at transmem-brane pressures of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 bar and temperature of 60 C.The lowest ux decline rate and the highest glycerol retention(99.6%) were achieved for the feed solution with 5% ethanol. Re-cently, Saleh et al. [54] reported that use of water to wash biodieselcan be avoided using membrane rening technique. The authorsnoted that membranes could facilitate recovery of valuable prod-ucts and treatment of efuents, thereby minimizing their harmto the atmosphere and providing solutions for many environmen-tal problems encountered during biodiesel production. They em-ployed polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane at a temperature of25 C to remove soap, methanol, water and glycerol. The authorsadded small amounts of water to improve glycerol separation frombiodiesel, and achieved a glycerol content as low as 0.013 mass%,which is below the ASTM D6751 standard of 0.020 mass%.

    3. Biodiesel wet washing technologies

    Production of biodiesel is usually followed with soaps forma-tion and water production especially when low quality feedstockand alkaline catalysts are used as shown in Fig. 1. Van Gerpen[55] stated that water content, free fatty acid level, and saturationlevel are the main differences between feedstocks. The author re-vealed that feedstocks should be dried to control water contentwhich causes hydrolysis of fats and oils to FFAs. The presence ofFFAs leads to soap formation, thus interfering in the products puri-cation process. Demirbas [41] noted that in alkali-catalyzedwith membrane pore size of 0.05 lm, tube length of 1200 mm, sur-face area of 0.022 m2, internal and external diameters of 6 and8 mm respectively. The membrane reactor performed well for itsability to retain the unreacted triglyceride, and provide high purityand quality biodiesel fuel. The authors noted that one of the advan-tages of triglyceride free fatty alkyl esters is the simplication ofthe often onerous downstream purication of crude biodiesel. Also,Gomes et al. [45] stated that to produce biodiesel fuel, separationof free glycerol is ranked among the most critical factors to con-sider. The authors studied the effectiveness of microltration withceramic membranes to separate biodiesel and glycerol. They

    n Insignicant InsignicantHigher NormalStraightforward StraightforwardNone StraightforwardRelatively exorbitant Potentially cheaptransesterication, the yields of fatty acid methyl esters and puri-cation process are negatively affected by presence of water. Wangand Yang [56] stated that the difculties involve in the removal ofhomogeneous catalyst lead to additional cost of biodiesel product.Further, Ma and Hanna [18] remarked that during transesterica-tion reaction, water content is a more critical variable than FFAs.

    Fig. 1. Formation of soap and water.

  • Consequently, feedstocks with high amount of water and FFAsmolecules could easily interfere with the transesterication reac-tion resulting in soaps formation, thereby affecting the puricationof crude biodiesel and lowering the yield of alkyl esters as shownin Figs. 2 and 3 [38]. Therefore to meet international standard spec-ication of high purity requirements for biodiesel fuel as providedby European standard (EN 14214) and the American standard fortesting materials (ASTM D6751) as shown in Table 4 [41], it is nec-essary to extensively purify crude biodiesel. Traditionally until re-cently the commonest effective technique to remove glycerol andmethanol from biodiesel product mixture is by water washing,since both glycerol and methanol are highly soluble in water[26]. Sandra and Dejan [57] reported that use of hot water washingcan provide ester yield of 86% and high purity of 99%. The authorsstated that to meet either EN 14214 or ASTM D6751-07, biodieselshould contain 96.5 wt.% Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME).

    Biodiesel wet washing technique involves addition of certainamount of water to crude biodiesel and agitating it gently to avoidformation of emulsion. The process is repeated until colorless washwater is obtained, indicating complete removal of impurities. Wetwashing processes usually requires a lot of water [27,58], approx-imately water wash solution at the rate of 28% by volume of oil and1 g of tannic acid per liter of water [59]. The use of large quantity ofwater generates huge amount of wastewater and incur high energycost [6062]. Jaruwat et al. [63] reported that Thailand is produc-ing about 350,000 L/day of fatty acid esters (biodiesel), resulting

    hyl e








    4242 I.M. Atadashi et al. / Applied EneWater content (%)0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35



    20 Alkaline catalystAcid catalyst

    Fig. 2. Graph of yield of methyl esters against water content in transesterication.

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6


    hyl e










    Alkaline catakystAcid catalystFFA (%)Fig. 3. Graph of yield of methyl esters against FFAs in transesterication.to no less than 70,000 L/day of contaminated wastewater. Theauthors noted that the wastewater disposed is at a high pH dueto signicant levels of residual KOH and hexane-extracted oil, highsolid content and low nitrogen concentration, besides higher con-centration values of BOD, COD, oil and grease, etc. as shown in Ta-ble 5. These components were found to inhibit the growth ofmicroorganisms, making it difcult for the wastewater to naturallydegrade [63].

    Wet washing is mostly conducted through washing with dion-ized water, washing with acid (5% phosphoric acid) and water andwashing with organic solvent and water as discussed below:

    3.1. Dionized water washing technology

    Water washing has been traditionally used to purify crude bio-diesel after its separation from glycerol [50]. Demirbas [59] re-ported that air was cautiously introduced into the aqueous layer,while gently stirring the mixture of crude biodiesel and water. Thisprocess was continued until the ester layer became cleared. Inaddition, after settling the aqueous solution was drained and wateralone was added at 28% by volume of oil for the nal washing pro-cess [59]. Van Gerpen [55] noted water washing to be the mostproblematic step in biodiesel production. The author reported thatalthough water washing involves heated, softened water, waste-water treatment and water/methanol separation. But the processof water application provides an avenue for the addition of acidto neutralize the remaining catalyst and remove the salts formed.Further, excess alcohol sometimes needs to be removed beforethe washing step. This usually prevents the addition of alcohol tothe wastewater efuent. In some cases the alcohols is removedwith the wastewater and then later remove from wastewater.The application of distilled water (120140 F) couple with gentlewater washing eliminates precipitation of saturated biodiesel andprevents the formation of emulsions [55]. Balat and Balat [21] re-marked that after transeterication, crude biodiesel and glycerolcan be phase separated within the rst 10 min and a complete sep-aration could be achieved in 2 h after stirring is stopped. Also alco-hol can be removed through distillation and evaporation and thatcare must be taken to ensure zero water accumulation in therecovered alcohol stream. The authors reported that after phaseseparation dionized water is added to crude biodiesel at the rateof 5.5% by volume of the feedstock and the mixture stirred for aperiod of 5 min and allowed to settle for glycerol removal. The re-moval of complete glycerol is an indication of high-quality biodie-sel production. Also, Fangrui et al. [64] noted that washing twotimes is enough to get rid of impurities from the methyl esters.The crude methyl esters produced was washed and distilled undervacuum at 3080 C and 133 pa. The product was then dried at80 C for 10 min to remove traces of moisture and the methyl esteryield was found to be 9799%. Chongkhong et al. [42] stated thatafter transesterication, 10.24 wt.% of 3 M NaOHH2O solutionwas used to neutralize crude biodiesel product containing residualFFAs of about 1.4 wt.%. The crude biodiesel and the solution ofNaOHH2O were mixed and stirred at a temperature of 80 C for20 min. The biodiesel phase was removed from the top of the sep-arator whilst soap was taken from the bottom. The nal biodieselproduct was then heated in an evaporator to remove the residualwater in the product.

    Furthermore, Saifuddin and Chua [65] washed esters phase sep-arated from the mixture by placing the esters on a glass cylinderand spraying water on top of the cylinder at low velocity. Both cat-alyst and alcohol were separated through the cylinder via percola-tion process. They used microwave heating power (750W) for 3

    rgy 88 (2011) 423942514 min to speed up the separation process and the cylinder was thenleft to stand for 10 min after irradiation. Consequently a clear estersphase at the top was obtained and the residual alcohol and catalyst

  • Un



    EneTable 4International biodiesel standard specications [41].


    Ester contentFlash pointWater and sedimentKinematic viscosity, 40 CSulfated ashSulfurS 15 gradeS 500 gradeCopper strip corrosionCetaneCloud pointCarbon residue 100% sampleAcid numberTriglycerideFree glycerinTotal glycerinPhosphorus contentMethanol contentDistillation temperature, atmospheric equivalent temperature,

    90% recoveredSodium/potassium

    I.M. Atadashi et al. / Appliedwere collected from the bottom. The nal ester product was driedusing anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The authors remarkedthat agitation during water washing could lead to high ester lossesas much as 18% due to formation of an emulsion. They stated thatthe amount of water needed in the purication of biodiesel couldbe minimized, if rened raw materials, moderate catalyst amountand lower alcohol ratios are employed. In another study, Suprihas-tuti and Aswati [66] reported that to achieve low glycerol content inbiodiesel as stipulated by ASTM D6751 and EN14214, the washingshould be done in multistage process. The authors noted that waterwashing could signicantly affect the extraction of glycerol. Theyadded that during water washing process, higher temperaturesgives more glycerol extraction. The authors experimented differentwashing times and remarked that for washing time more than20 min and at room temperature and by using esters to water vol-ume ratio of 1:3, the glycerol content in esters was reduced from0.9331% to 0.0423% and the pHwas down to 7.3. Although, the glyc-erol value obtainedwas higher than the allowable value for interna-tional standards.

    3.2. Acids and dionized water washing technology

    Acids such as phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloricacid are mostly used in the purication of crude biodiesel. This

    Max: Maximum.Min: Minimum.

    Table 5Chemical and physical properties of raw biodiesel wastewater.

    Parameters Thailand standard [63] Value

    pH 5.59 9.25COD (mg/L) 6400 312,0BOD (mg/L) 660 168,0Oil and grease (mg/L) 65 18,00TKN (mg/L) 6100 439Conductivity (Scm1) TSSa (mg/L) VSSb (mg/L) MSSc (mg/L)

    TKN: Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen.a Total suspended solids.b Volatile suspended solids.c Mineral suspended solids.its ASTM Method EN14214

    (m/m) 96.5130 min. >101

    l.% 0.050 max. 0.05m2/s 1.96.0 3.55(m/m) 0.020 max. 0.02g/kg 610m 15 max.

    500 max. ting No.3 max. class1

    47 min. P51Report

    (m/m) 0.050 max, g KOH/gm 0.50 max. 0.50 max.(m/m) 0.20 max. 0.20 max.(m/m) 0.020 max. 0.02 max.(m/m) 0.240 max. 0.25 max.ass% 0.001 max. 0.001 max.(m/m) 0.20 max.

    360 max.

    m 5 max. combined 5 max.

    rgy 88 (2011) 42394251 4243process is followed with use of distilled water to completely re-move biodiesel impurities. For the purpose of immediate use ondiesel engines and long term storage, puried biodiesel is properlydried. Cayli and Kusefoglu [67] noted that after one-step transeste-rication reaction, the crude methyl esters produced was puriedwith hot water at 70 C, and 5% H3PO4 (aq) at 50 C. The authorsdried the methyl ester layer in a vacuum and checked with cericammonium nitrate reagent for glycerol removal. Hass et al. [13]stated that water have to be reduced to a limit of 0.050% (v/v) tomeet the ASTM D6751 standard specication. The authors washedbiodiesel with water of pH 4.5. The process helped in neutralizingthe catalyst and converting the soap formed to FFAs, thus reducingits emulsifying tendencies. Further, vacuum dryer was used to re-duce the residual water from the initial value of 2.4% to nal valueof 0.045%. The water removed via drying was recycled into wash-ing operation. As well, to reduce the cost of production, the glyc-erol produced was also rened to a concentration level suitableto the market value (80w/w%). Karaosmanoglu et al. [68] investi-gated rening of crude biodiesel via neutralization with Sulfuricacid (1:1). Two processes were explored: use of catalyst in solidform and use of catalyst dissolved in methanol. In the case of ren-ing technique for catalyst in solid form, decantation was used to re-move the catalyst and the product was transferred into aseparatory funnel to separate biodiesel from glycerol. Sulfuric

    s of raw biodiesel wastewater [63] Biodiesel waste water [26]

    10.76 6.700588,800 18,36200300,000 022,000 464


  • washed with hot water (50 C) until the washing reached a neutral

    be more effective and efcient as shown in Fig. 4. Dry washing is

    Ene(1:1) was then applied to reduce the pH from the initial 11.92 to apH of 7.0. The biodiesel phase was then separated via centrifuga-tion and the water content of biodiesel fuel was removed overnightby leaving the product over heated Na2SO4 (25% of the quantity ofbiodiesel). For the case of catalyst dissolved in methanol containingpH of 13.07, the pH was reduced to neutral pH value of 7.0 withsimilar rening approach as that of catalyst in solid form beingadopted. In addition, Faccini et al. [69] thoroughly washed crudebiodiesel using 10% acid water at 55 C. The acid water was pre-pared by adding 2% (v/v) H3PO4 to distilled water. This washingstep was conducted in the same transesterication reactor withconstant stirring over 5 min, maintaining the temperature at55 C. Subsequently, the mixture of wastewater and biodieselwas separated using separatory funnel. The wastewater (bottomlayer) was removed and the biodiesel was washed three times withportions of 10% (v/v) hot water (55 C). The upper layer, containingthe puried biodiesel, was dried and stored for further analysis.

    Furthermore, Srivastava and Verma [70] stated that separationof glycerol was achieved after the product mixture was allowedto stay for 8 h. The upper layer of crude biodiesel was puriedvia bubble washed technique using 10% H3PO4. The product waspuried by passing air by aquarium stone for at least a day. Theproduct was nally washed with distilled water to remove the dis-solved impurities such as catalyst, soap and alcohol. The productwas then transferred into a separatory funnel and allowed to stayfor half an hour. The nal biodiesel with much lighter color was ob-tained and stored in container for use. This method of biodieselpurication is efcient for a small biodiesel installation [71]. How-ever, this technique is not employed by any large biodiesel puri-cation facility. In another study, He et al. [51] used HCl (pH = 1) totreat crude biodiesel at room temperature (20 C). The product wasthen washed twice with deionized water at a volume ratio of 1:1.The nal biodiesel product was placed over heated Na2SO4 (10% ofthe amount of biodiesel) for a period of 12 h to remove biodieselwater content and the product was ltered. Similarly, Atapourand Kariminia [72] employed 35 mL of hot distilled water to washthe biodiesel produced. In order to neutralize the residual catalystand decompose the soaps formed, the product was treated with35 mL of HCl (0.5%). Further the product was washed three timeswith 35 mL of hot distilled water. They observed that successiverinses successfully removed contaminants such as methanol, resid-ual catalyst, soaps and glycerol. Finally the biodiesel obtained wasthen dried using manganese sulfate and ltered under vacuumconditions to eliminate manganese sulfate crystals. Also, Qiuet al. [10] reported that the upper layer containing biodiesel, tracesof the catalyst, n-hexane and residual methanol was thoroughlycleaned by washing with deionized water to eliminate the contam-inants such as catalyst, n-hexane and residual methanol. They usedrotary evaporation at 70 C to remove n-hexane and the residualmethanol from the product. The nal biodiesel product was thenwashed twice with HCl solution (0.5 mol/L) until a clear phase(biodiesel) was achieved. In another investigation, Tint and Mya[73] used stainless steel tank having 45 gallons capacities to sepa-rate biodiesel and glycerol. The crude biodiesel was washed usingphosphoric acid followed by multiple water washings to achievepH of 7. The authors stated that repeated water washing is neces-sary to achieve clear biodiesel layer free from methanol, residualcatalyst and soap. Thus, after water washing the nal biodieselproduct was sent to the sand stainless steel ltration tank. The tankwas open at the top containing 100 mesh size stainless steel screensupported by steel frame. The sand consisting the size of(20 + 60) mesh was put over the 100 mesh size screen. After l-tration, a clear amber-yellow liquid biodiesel with a viscosity com-

    4244 I.M. Atadashi et al. / Appliedparable to that of petro-diesel was obtained.In additional, Van Gerpen [55] noted that to eliminate magne-

    sium and calcium contamination and neutralize the remainingusually carried out at a temperature of 65 C and the process ismostly completed within 2030 min [77]. Therefore during wash-ing process, the amount of glycerides and total glycerol in crudebiodiesel are lowered to a reasonable level. Besides, the processhas the advantage of being waterless, strong afnity to polar com-pounds, easy to integrate into existing plant, signicantly lowerpH. n-Hexane was also used for the extraction of crude biodiesel ata 1:1 ratio at room temperature. The mixture was washed threetimes using distilled water and the nal yield obtained was93.0 wt.%. Soriano et al. [75] reported that after transesterication,the residual alcohol and the tetrahydrofuran (THF) were removedvia vacuum distillation followed by extraction with petroleumether. The residual catalyst was then removed by ltration process.The nal biodiesel product was achieved by using vacuumdistillation.

    Furthermore, Fangrui et al. [64] reported that methyl esterswere washed with petroleum ether, and glacial acetic acid wasadded to adjust the pH to 7. The authors revealed that the productsobtained were further puried by washing three times with water.The products were then dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate,ltered and the solvent removed by evaporation. Karaosmanogluet al. [68] used petroleum ether to rene crude biodiesel. The pro-cess was employed after biodiesel and glycerol were separated viadecantation. The catalyst was removed in solid form from thereacting vessel while rotary evaporator under vacuum was usedto remove the methanol. The crude biodiesel was then poured intoa separatory funnel and then petroleum ether and distilled waterwere added, the pH of the mixture was adjusted by adding aceticacid. To further purify the product, water washing was repeatedthree times and the nal biodiesel was heated via Na2SO4 over-night and separated. The separation of petroleum ether wasachieved via rotary evaporator under vacuum.

    4. Dry washing technologies

    The dry washing technique commonly employed to purifycrude biodiesel is usually achieved through the use of silicates(Magnesol or Trisyl), ion exchange resins (Amberlite or purolite),cellulosics, activated clay, activated carbon, and activated ber,etc. These Adsorbents consist of acidic and basic adsorption (bind-ing) sites and have strong afnity for polar compounds such asmethanol, glycerin, glycerides, metals and soap [76]. This tech-nique is followed with the use of a lter to enable the process tobase catalysts, softened water (slightly acidic) is usually applied.Similarly, copper and iron ions removal eradicates the sources ofcatalysts that decreases the fuel stability and minimize the ten-dency for the fuel to be out of specication. Finally, the rened bio-diesel is dried using vacuum ash technique, sent to storage unitand made available for diesel engine consumption [55].

    3.3. Organic solvents washing technology

    Organic solvents such as petroleum ether have been used topurify crude biodiesel. This process is usually followed with theuse of large amount of demineralized water to remove residualsoap and catalyst. Wang et al. [74] distilled fatty acid methyl ester(FAME) under vacuum (40 5 mmHg) at 180 C. When the temper-ature reached 240 C (40 5 mmHg), the distillation was assumedto be completed. The crude FAME was separated after acidictransesterication and then puried with petroleum ether and

    rgy 88 (2011) 42394251purication time, no wastewater, total surface area coverage ofwash tank is minimized, solid waste has alternate uses, savesspace, and improves fuel quality [76]. Dugan [78] have discussed

  • The use of magnesol, ion exchange resin, and other adsorbents

    as possible. They suggested use of mask before handling magnesol,

    f bio

    Enesuch as activated clay, activated carbon, and activated ber are dis-cussed as follows.

    4.1. Magnesol

    Cooke et al. [79] remarked that water washing is been substi-tuted by dry washing (magnesol powder or an ion exchange resin)to neutralize impurities. The authors reported the adoption of bothdry washing techniques in industrial plants. The treatment ofcrude biodiesel with magnesol, a synthetic magnesium silicate, re-quires 1.53 wt.% of biodiesel and need to be thoroughly mixed.the process of dry washing technique to purify biodiesel, and notedthe process to decreases production time, and lower cost of pro-duction. The author stated that dry washing provides high-qualityfuel and since water is not added, it is possible to achieve less than500 ppm water content as stipulated by ASTM D6751. However inwet washing, the water content of the fuel is usually above1000 ppm, which makes its removal difcult, time-consumingand costly [78].

    Crude biodiesel

    Mixer (65oC for 20-30min)

    Excess alcohol Removal

    Fig. 4. Schematic diagram o

    I.M. Atadashi et al. / AppliedThe mixture is ltered using cloth lter of size 5 lm and 1 lmnominal lter is used to conduct nal ltration process. The nalproduct is polished through a lter with sizes 0.45 lm or0.55 lm before being used as fuel. The process of magnesol biodie-sel purication was experimented and the results obtained werecomparable to those provided by ASTM D6751 and EN14214[30]. Also, Bryan [80] have experimented use of magnesol on bothsoybean and grease biodiesels and the physicochemical propertiesmet both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. The author stated thatmegnesol has a strong afnity for polar compounds, thereby ac-tively ltering out metal contaminants, mono and di-glycerides,free glycerin, and excess methanol as well as free fatty acids andsoap.

    Furthermore, Faccini et al. [69] studied different types of drywashing techniques. The adsorbent experimented showed goodperformance, the results from the two best adsorbents (Magnesol1% and silica 2%) are 0.17 mgKOHg1 for acid number, 61 ppm ofsoap, 500 mg kg1 of water, 0.22% of methanol and 0.03% of freeglycerol. Although the value of the free glycerol obtained exceededthe minimum glycerol requirement as stipulated by ASTM6751standard. Similarly, Berrios and Skelton [26] experimented use ofmagnesol of varying concentrations: 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% at60 C, using a batch reactor with sample size of 200 mL tted witha variable speed agitator and immersed in a water batch to purifysince the powder is very ne. At the end of the purication process,biodiesel containing methanol content of 0.51%, and free glycerolcontent of 0.03% were obtained. However the major limitationabout use of magnesol is that little is known about the process,its catalytic efciency and performance intricacies [76].

    4.2. Washing with ion exchange resins

    Ion exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure)normally in the form of small (12 mm diameter) beads, usuallywhite or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate[81]. The application of ion exchange resins as a dry washing agentcrude biodiesel. Samples were also taken at 10 and 20 min,although the standard washing time is 30 min. A vacuum ltrationusing a Bchner funnel and water ejector was employed to sepa-rate the nal product. Also, a centrifuge was used to remove theintermediate product. The authors noted that since magnesol ishygroscopic the bag was opened with care and re-sealed as tightly

    diesel dry washing process.

    rgy 88 (2011) 42394251 4245is being promoted by the resins manufacturers; Purolite (PD206)and Rohm and Haas (BD10 Dry). Purolite (PD206) is a dry polishingmedia specically formulated to remove by-products remainingafter production of biodiesel [82]. Although being sold as ion ex-change materials, but none of the suppliers advocates its regener-ation because of being acting as adsorbents. Berrios and Skelton[26] studied the effects of ion exchange resins on the puricationof crude biodiesel. The authors reported that the feed were passedthrough a column of resin supported in a glass tube and meteredpumpwas used to control the ow, and restricted outlets were em-ployed to ensure a liquid head above the resins. They noted thatinitial loading and ows of the resins were based on the recom-mendation of R&H trade literature. The authors analyzed the sam-ples at interval of 2 h for methanol and glycerol and demonstratedthat ion exchange resin has the capability to reduce glycerol to avalue of 0.01 wt and considerably remove soap, but could not suc-cessfully remove methanol. They obtained methanol content of1.14%, which is far above EN14214 standard specication. Moreso, the adsorption of little soap indicates a constraint for feed con-taining high soap content [76]. Additionally, ion exchange resinsoffers good performance and provide cost benets in the removalof glycerin and water, removal of salts, soap, and catalyst and alsoeradicate water washing [83]. However, it has less effect on the re-moval of methanol [8].

  • Ene5.1. Organic membranes

    The membranes used for the pressure driven separation pro-cesses, are microltration (MF), ultraltration (UF) and reverseosmosis (RO). Initially most of such membranes were cellulosicin nature. These are now being replaced by polyamide, polysul-phone, polycarbonate and several other advanced polymers. Thesesynthetic polymers have improved chemical stability and betterresistance to microbial degradation [87]. Additionally, Salahiet al. [88] remarked that polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is porous andasymmetric membrane which combines high selectivity with highpermeation rate. However in organic solvents, polymeric mem-branes may swell, resulting to instant and/or long-term pore-sizechanges. Consequently, polymeric membranes in solvent applica-tions have shorter operating lifetimes [89].

    5.2. Ceramic membranes4.3. Washing with other dry washing agents

    Dry washing agent such as activated carbon is commonly usedto remove biodiesel excess color. Thus for effective dry washing ofcrude biodiesel, the adsorbent is channeled into a paddle type mix-ing tank and thoroughly agitated. Hayafuji et al. [84] experimenteduse of activated bers, activated carbon, activated clay and acidclay to purify biodiesel. Further, glycerin was also used as a solventto wash impurities. The authors noted that clay; especially acidclay treated with sulfuric acid is a preferable, which is superiorin the aspects of dealkaline effect, deodorant effect and decoloringeffect. Also clay grain size ranging from 0.1 mm to 1.5 mm is moresuitable for effective biodiesel purication. They stated that claywith smaller grain size provides superior purication process,but separation after the purication treatment is more difcult.However, when the clay grain size is larger, separation after thetreatment becomes easier, but purication process is inferior.

    5. Biodiesel membrane rening technology

    Basically, membranes are semi-permeable barriers that sepa-rate different species of solution by allowing restricted passageof some component of mixture in a selective manner [85]. A mem-brane can be homogenous or heterogeneous, symmetric or asym-metric in structure, solid or liquid, and can carry a positive ornegative charge or be neutral or bipolar. Transport through a mem-brane can be affected by convection or by diffusion of individualmolecules, induced by an electric eld or concentration, pressureor temperature gradient [86]. Membrane based separations arewell-established technologies in water purication, protein sepa-rations and gas separations. However, commercial applications ofmembrane technologies are limited to separations involving aque-ous solutions and relatively inert gases. Thus the use of membranesto treat non aqueous uids is an emerging area in membrane tech-nologies [53]. Lin et al. [52] reported that membrane separation isprimarily a size exclusion-based pressure-driven process. There-fore, different components are separated according to their particlesizes and shapes of individual components or molecular weights.The mode of components operation is somewhat dependent ontheir interactions with the membrane surface and other compo-nents of the mixture. Also, performance of membrane separationis affected by membrane composition, pressure, temperature,velocity of ow and interactions between components of the feedwith membrane surface [52].

    4246 I.M. Atadashi et al. / AppliedCeramic membranes have great potentials and represent adistinct class of inorganic membranes. Much attention has beenfocused on inorganic membranes for their superiority than organicones in thermal, chemical and mechanical stability, high porosity,high ux, long life time, resistance to microbial degradation, in-creased resistance to fouling, and a narrower pore size distribution.Thus, porous inorganic membranes (e.g. Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, SiC) pos-sess some practical advantages over the polymeric ones such ashigher mechanical strength, thermal and corrosive resistanceamong others [90]. In addition to membrane material, pore sizeinuences membranes and small pore sizes give more stable mem-branes [91]. Porous ceramic membranes are normally prepared bysolgel or hydrothermal methods, and have high stability anddurability in high temperature, harsh impurity and hydrothermalenvironments [92]. Saffaj et al. [93] reported that using asymmet-ric multilayer conguration, ceramic membranes with high perfor-mance parameters such as permeation ow and mechanicalresistance can be achieved. The development of such a multilayerconguration includes: shaping of a suitable support material, for-mation of a microltration interlayer and synthesis of an ultral-tration (UF) top layer. Multilayer asymmetric membranes usuallyconsist of permselective material as a thin lm on one or a seriesof porous supports, which provide the required mechanical stabil-ity without dramatically reducing the total transmembrane ux[94]. Tsuru et al. [95] state that one indicator of molecular size ismolecular weight, i.e. a molecular sieving effect. Therefore, theinteraction between solutes and membrane appears to be impor-tant. The effect of interaction between solutes and membrane sur-face would be more pronounced in nanoltration membraneshaving pores approximately 1 nm than for ultraltration andmicrotration membranes having much larger pores.

    5.3. Prospects of biodiesel membranes rening technology

    The criteria for selecting membranes are complex and this de-pends on the application. Important considerations on productivityand separation selectivity, as well as the membranes durabilityand mechanical integrity at the operating conditions must be bal-anced against cost issues in all cases. The relative importance ofeach of these requirements varies with the application. However,selectivity and permeation rate (permeances) are clearly the mostbasic properties of a membrane. The higher the selectivity, themore efcient the process, the lower the driving force required toachieve a given separation. The higher the ux, the smaller themembrane area is required [93]. Further the driving force is oftenpressure or concentration gradient across the membrane. Addi-tionally, an authoritative outline of basic concepts and denitionsfor membranes is obtained in a report of International Union ofPure and Applied Chemistry [92]. Usually, membranes are appliedfor different purposes. Thus, Table 6 compares polymeric and inor-ganic membranes features. Thus, inorganic membranes favorapplications under higher temperature and chemical conditions,whereas polymeric ones have the advantages of being economical.The successful application of membrane technology to purify crudebiodiesel has re-ignited the interest in the struggle to develop com-mercial biodiesel production. Table 7 shows that membrane bio-diesel purication could provide high purity and quality biodieselcomparable to those obtained via conventional wet and dry wash-ing techniques. Contrary to both wet and dry washing techniques,membrane biodiesel purication process does not require bothwater and absorbent [62]. Membrane processes are usually basedon the theory that higher permeates uxes are followed by lowerselectivity and higher selectivity is followed with lower permeatesuxes. Fig. 5 shows ceramic membrane biodiesel puricationprocess.

    rgy 88 (2011) 42394251Cao et al. [61] stated that maintaining a separate lipid phase is akey factor to assure high-quality biodiesel production with themembrane reactor system. The membrane used had a 300 kDa

  • mal

    le, tntam




    EneMWCO. This property provided an exceptional means of retainingemulsions formed. Table 8 compares glycerin purication resultsobtained from membrane and conventional rening technologies.In the case of batch reaction, the total glycerin and free glycerinwere approximately twice that obtained from the membrane sys-

    Table 6Comparison of polymeric and inorganic membranes [92].

    Membrane Advantages Disadvantages

    Inorganic Long term durability Brittle (Pd) High thermal stability (>200 C) Expensive Chemical stability in wide pH Some have low hydrother High structural integrity

    Polymeric Cheap Structurally weak, not stab Mass production (larger scale) Prone to denature & be co Good quality control (short life)

    Table 7Comparison of biodiesel purication of different types of rening techniques.









    0.5 0 4.02 95.34 0.14 0.6

    99.6 0.03 0.201 97.1

  • (Biodiesel)

    EneRemoval of glycerol/ alcohol/other

    Alcohol for storage/recycling Inorganic Membrne

    Crude fatty acid alkyl esters

    4248 I.M. Atadashi et al. / AppliedDemirbas [98] reported that alcohols such as ethanol formsazeotropes with water during transesterication reaction and mostoften cannot be completely recovered during purication process.However, it was noted that pervaporation, a membrane process isa promising technique in removing ethanol from alkyl esters [99].

    6. Advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel reningtechnologies

    The rening of crude biodiesel is primarily done to achieve highpurity and quality biodiesel products that can be used in compres-sionignition (diesel) engines [100]. Furthermore, rening of crude


    Recovered catalyst

    Fig. 5. Schematic diagram for bi

    Table 8Comparison between different rening techniques for the removal of glycerin from biodie

    Lipid feedstock Biodiesel from membrane reactor (w%)

    Total glycerin Free glycerin

    Canola 0.0712 0.00654Yellow grease 0.0989 0.00735Brown grease 0.104 0.0138Palm oil 0.0152 0.0074Canola oil 0.013a

    Soybean oil 0.04 0.004a

    a Does not meet the ASTM standard for glycerin in biodiesel (0.02 wt.%).b Ion exchange resin.c Magnesol.

    Table 9Contents of metals in the permeates and the retentate by membrane [62].

    Component Metals content (mg/kg)a


    Feed biodiesel 160 19The permeate (0.6 lm): 4.25 0.37The permeate (0.2 lm): 2.20 0.42The permeate (0.1 lm): 1.70 0.31Biodiesel by water washing: 2.46 0.41

    a Results are means SD (n = 5).Consumption/storage

    Purified Biodiesel

    Purified glycerol for

    rgy 88 (2011) 42394251biodiesel is a key factor to its commercial production and applica-tion. Thus continuous development of these rening technologiesto purify biodiesel has raised hope for biodiesel industrial produc-tion and practical usability. Furthermore, achievement of high-quality biodiesel fuel could provide the following benets: reduc-tion in elastomeric seal failures, decrease in fuel injector blockagesand corrosion due absence of glycerol, catalysts and soaps, reducesdegradation of engine oil thereby providing high engine perfor-mance, better lubricant properties and better quality exhaust emis-sions. In addition, generation of high-quality biodiesel could alsolead to elimination of fuel tanks corrosion effects, eradication ofbacterial growths and congestion of fuel lines and lters, and anni-hilation of pump seizures emanating owing to higher viscosity at

    sale to other industries

    odiesel purication process.


    Biodiesel from batch reaction (w%) Ref.

    Total glycerin Free glycerin

    0.131 0.0124 [61]0.685a 0.0234a [61]0.797a 0.0171 [61] 0.0179 0.0067 [62] [54] [45] 0.03a,b [26] 0.03a,c [26]

    Sodium Calcium Magnesium

    8.98 1.52 1.45 0.36 0.33 0.120.68 0.15 0.70 0.24 0.25 0.110.88 0.23 0.55 0.25 0.26 0.161.36 0.34 0.95 0.38 0.15 0.071.41 0.35 0.64 0.29 0.18 0.08

  • mendations were made:






    Ene1. Wet rening technologies were reported to meet EN14214 inlow temperatures [26]. Table 10 summarizes the advantages anddisadvantages of rening techniques used to purify crude biodiesel.

    7. Conclusions and recommendations

    Based on the foregoing the following conclusions and recom-

    Table 10Advantages and disadvantages of different rening techniques.

    Technique Advantages

    Wet washing Excellent methanol removal

    Can reduce methanol, soap and free glycerol levels belowthe amount needed by EN14214, with biodiesel purity of99%

    Dry washing Magnesol can remove free and bonded glycerol, soap andpotassium. Magnesol is efcient and has the Ability to replace waterwashing Can effectively remove residual methanol, catalyst traces Can augments the stability of bio-diesel in the oxidationprocess, besides it ability to remove sulfur Can save time, lower energy, save capital cost, and leadsignicant disposal cost reduction


    Provided good yield, high purity and quality nishedproducts that are comparable to the conventional dieselfuels, simple, with less energy consumption, provideenormous environmental benets and energy savings Reduction in separation and purication costs, improvedfuel quality, and high recovery of valuable productsZero waster washing with no waste discharges, and providebiodiesel with less glycerol content

    I.M. Atadashi et al. / Appliedterms of methanol and free glycerol level required in biodieselfuel, but the process is associated with wastewater discharges,which leads to environmental pollution, thus raising environ-mental concerns.

    2. It was reported that separation of glycerol is critical to achievedhigh-quality biodiesel fuel.

    3. It was found that dry washing process (using magnesol and ionexchange resins) does not meet EN14214 in terms of methanolrequired in biodiesel fuel.

    4. It was also discovered that with little addition of water, mem-brane process could provide biodiesel with 0.013 wt.% glycerol,a value below the level stipulated by both ASTM D6751 andEN14214.

    5. Membrane biodiesel rening proved to be less energy consum-ing and generate almost zero wastewater. These advantagesmakes membrane rening technology to be more environmen-tally friendly compared to wet water washing technology.

    6. The signicant effects of membrane on the removal of triglycer-ides and residual glycerol placed it at an advantage compared tosome dry washing processes.

    7. Development of membrane technology is necessary to exploitits inherent characteristic of operating under moderateconditions.

    8. Application of adsorbents to overcome problems of wet reningwas noticed to result in spent adsorbents that are not regener-ated and cannot be re-used.

    9. Wet biodiesel rening need to be completely discouraged for itshigh energy and water consumption and considerable waste-water discharges.References

    [1] Li S-Z, Chan-Halbrendt C. Ethanol production in (the) Peoples Republic ofChina: potential and technologies. Appl Energy 2009;86:S1629.

    [2] Agarwal AK. Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internalcombustion engines. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2007;33:23371.

    [3] Ferella F, Di Celso GM, De Michelis I, Stanisci V, Vegli F. Optimization of thetransesterication reaction in biodiesel production. Fuel 2010;88:3642.

    [4] Arpa O, Yumrutas R, Demirbas A. Production of diesel-like fuel from wasteengine oil by pyrolitic distillation. Appl Energy 2010;87:1227.

    [5] Guo X, Wang S, Guo Z, Liu Q, Luo Z, Cen K. Pyrolysis characteristics of bio-oilfractions separated by molecular distillation. Appl Energy 2010;87:28928.

    isadvantages Ref.

    Emulsion formation, wastewater treatment, no effects onlycerides, and drying of nal product


    Consumption of water and Na2SO4, high biodiesel productsrying cost long time for water washing and the process is lesscologically viable


    onsiderable loss in product due to formation of soap andmulsion, and treatment could incur high energy cost



    Information regarding the chemical composition of the resindifcult and little effects on methanol



    volve highly consumable incurring expensive, requiregnicant resources, larger size of powder grains makingem exceedingly difcult to remove, and this caused anbrasive contaminated fuel



    Organic membranes are less stable and easily get swollen inrganic solvent


    No large-scale industrial applications [61,62,106]

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    I.M. Atadashi et al. / Applied Energy 88 (2011) 42394251 4251

    Refining technologies for the purification of crude biodiesel1 Introduction2 Biodiesel separation technologies3 Biodiesel wet washing technologies3.1 Dionized water washing technology3.2 Acids and dionized water washing technology3.3 Organic solvents washing technology

    4 Dry washing technologies4.1 Magnesol4.2 Washing with ion exchange resins4.3 Washing with other dry washing agents

    5 Biodiesel membrane refining technology5.1 Organic membranes5.2 Ceramic membranes5.3 Prospects of biodiesel membranes refining technology

    6 Advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel refining technologies7 Conclusions and recommendationsReferences