Presentation on Petrochemicals

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Transcript of Presentation on Petrochemicals

PETROCHEMICALS

PETROCHEMICALS BYNibir Pawan Das

What are Petrochemicals?Petrochemicals are:Chemicals products.Derived from Petroleum.Also from Fossil Fuels and Renewable sources.

Major petrochemical products

Primary polymer resins and plasticisers:PVC.LDPE/HDPE.POLYSTYRENE.

Fibers:Acrylic fiber.Nylon.Polyester.

Major petrochemical productsChemicals:Dye stuff and chemical intermediates.Pharmaceuticals.Detergents.

Requirements of Petrochemical IndustryTo meet the increasing demand.Vital for economic growth.Self-sufficiency by decreasing imports.

Structure of Petrochemical industry:

Feedstock

Building blocks

Intermediates

Final Products

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Processes Involved

Cracking:Thermal cracking.Catalytic cracking.

Reforming:Catalytic reforming.Steam reforming.

Naphtha CrackingSteam cracking.Catalytic cracking.The back-bone of petrochemical industry

NaphthaAromaticOlefinsCrackingCracking

Steam cracking.Steam cracking is a Pyrolysis process , involving cracking and de-hydrogenation.Heating of hydrocarbons in the presence of steam.Endothermic.Less residence time.

Motivation for steam cracking

The worldwide demand and production of olefins

Currently, production through steam cracking 94% of the world propylene.In Western Europe, 95% of ethylene and 7075% of propylene.3. In Asia, 61% of ethylene.

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Process of steam cracking of naphthaPyrolysis section

Fractionation andCompression Section

Product recovery and Separation SectionNaphtha

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Pyrolysis section Pyrolysis furnaceTransfer line exchange(producing steam)

Cracked gas

Naphtha

Separation section

Ethylene (24%)Propylene(20%)Butadiene(3%) BTX(1%)Petroleum ether(25%)Products from separation section

Process conditions:Pressure2-3 bar.Temperature800 -850 0C.Residence time0.1 0.5 seconds.Dilution steam ratio0.3 0.8 kg/kg

Chemistry of steam cracking PropagationInitiationTermination

Severity vs Product yield

Energy analysis in steam cracking sections Section Energy required Energy lossPyrolysis 65% 75%Fractionation and Compression 15% 25%Recovery section 20% 15%

Latest Development in steam cracking of naphtha Advanced furnace materials

Advanced distillation column

Membranes

zeoliteAlternative technologies Catalytic cracking of naphthaHydro-pyrolysis of naphtha

Use of products of steam cracking of naphtha

ReferencesOlefins from conventional and heavy feedstock's: Energy use in steam cracking and alternative processes. Energy 31 (2006) 425-251.. By Tao Ren, Martin Patel, Kornelis Blok.www.ihs.comwww.afpm.comwww.petrochem.netwww.ficci.com

Thank you