Petrochemicals 2

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this presentation deals with basic building blocks of petrochemicals .info about petrochemical industry as well .it aslo adds the origin of petrochemicals as well .this presentation also comes with the alternate of routes of basic chemicals like ethlyene , propylene etc all

Transcript of Petrochemicals 2

  • ContentsChemical industry & CatalysisOrigin of PetrochemicalsBasic / Building block chemicalsBasic chemicals to Petrochemicals Petrochemical processes & catalystsEthylene, Propylene & Butadiene by thermal crackingAlternative routes for Basic chemicals

  • Chemical Industry-The Fact Sheet

    70000 products10 Million direct employees50 Million indirect employeesWide range of products/processes

    / feed-stocksEnabling better quality of lifeAnnual growth rate 2.4 %

    Global enterprise valued at $2.2 Trillion and growing

  • Chemical Industry- Products patternChemicals- Intricately woven with our day to day life

    Petrochemicals-37%

  • Petroleum Refining- The Mother Industry5-6%CRUDE OIL

  • Product Slates Petroleum FuelsFeed-stocksHydrogenLubricantsSyngasSulfur Petrochemical feed-stocksC2-C3 gasLPGC4 streamNaphtha for light olefinsNaphtha for aromaticsKeroseneGas oil for cracking

  • CRUDE OILREFINARYFEEDSTOCKSGas, Naphtha, Gas Oil, KerosenePETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRYBASIC CHEMICALSEthylene, Propylene, 1.3-Butadiene & BTX, PETROCHEMICALSPE,PP,PVC,PS,PBR,MEG,LAB,ACN, AF, PTA, PHA, MA,CPL

    Petrochemicals- The Origin

  • Basic/Building block Chemicals Ethylene Propylene Butadiene (1,3) Benzene Toulene Xylenes

  • Petrochemicals from Ethylene

  • Petrochemicals from Propylene

  • AdiponitrileADNPolybutadieneRubberPBRStyrene-ButadieneRubber SBRAcrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene ABSButadienePetrochemicals from ButadienePetrochemicals from BSpecialty Polymers /Chemicals

  • Petrochemicals from Benzene

  • TolueneSpecialty/Functionalized chemicalsXylenesBenzenePetrochemicals from Toluene

  • XylenesO-Xylenep-Xylenem-XylenePhthalic anhydrideTerephthalic acidPTAIso-phthalic acidPlasticizersPolyestersPETPetrochemicals from Xylenes

  • Table.3. Major petrochemical processes & catalystsProcessCatalysts/ProcessesAromaticsNaphtha reforming- Production of Gasoline & BTXPt-Re/Al2O3, Pt-Sn/Al2O3,Semi-regenerative/ CCRUOP/Axens/Criterion/Chevron/IPCL/RILXylene Isomerization- Towards maximization of p-Xylene- EB Conversion/ EB dealkylation prcessesZSM-5 CompositeUOP, Axens, Exxon-MobilZeolyst, IPCL/RILC7+C9 Aromatics Transalkylation- Upgradation of low value C7& C9 streams, towards maximization of p-XyleneZSM-5 CompositeUOP, Axens, Exxon-Mobil,SK CorpnToluene Disproportionation- Up gradation of low value C7 stream- Value added products- Benzene & p- Xylene ZSM-5 CompositeUOP, Axens, Exxon-Mobil,

    Alkylation of Toluene/ Ethylbenzne- Value added products- p-Xylene & PDEBPore regulated ZSM-5IPCL/RIL, UOP

  • DehydrogenationC3 ,C4 paraffins to Olefins- Monomers- Propylene, Iso-buteneCr2 O3/Al2O3, Pt-Sn/Al2O3,UOP, CATOFIN, Phillips, LindeC10-C13 paraffins to Mono olefins- For alkylation with Benzene to Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) Pt-Sn/Al2O3,UOP, IFP,IPCL/RILEthyl benzene to StyreneFe-K/Al2O3UOP

  • HydrogenationAcetylenics in C2/C3/C4 hydrocarbon streams- Purification of monomersPd/Ni supported on alumina with promotersAxens, Sud-Chemie, BASFBenzene to Cyclohexane- For caprolactum productionNi/Alumina, Pt/AluminaAxens, SC,UOPHydrogenation of Oils/FatsNi/AluminaPurification of PTA- removal of 4-CBAPd/CarbonBASF, Sud-Chemie,ChemitHydrogenation of unsaturated organic compoundsSupported Ni/Pd with promoters

  • Oxidation /Epoxidation /Oxychlrination / AmmoxidationEthylene to Ethylene oxidePromoted Ag/Alumina, DOW,Shell,Sci.DesignEthylene to Acetic acidSupported PdEthylene+ HCl to Ethylene dichlorideCuCl2- KCl/AluminaBASF, KNF, OxyvinylPropylene to AcrylonitrileMolybdates of Bi,Fe,Ni/SilicaIneosPropylene to Acrylic acidV-P-O,IneosPropylene to Propylene oxideSupported Mo Oxides/AuO-Xylene to Phthalic anhydrideVanadia/TiO2P-Xylene to Purified Terephthalic acid(PTA)Co-Mn fatty acidsButane to Maleic anhydrideV-P-O, Ineos

  • Syngas conversionsCO+2H2 CH3OHZnO-CuO-ChromiaCO+H2 n-Paraffins (Fischer-Tropsch)Supported Co/Fe with promotersCO + CH3OH Acetic acidRh-,Ir-Iodide promoted

  • Polymer ProcessesEthylene to PolyethyleneLDPE, LLDPE, HDPEHigh pressure tubular process (LDPE)Chevron-Phillips slurry processBasell Spherilene process ( LLDPE/HDPE)NOVA- Sclairtech process ( LLDPE/HDPE)Propylene to PolypropylenePP, PE CopolymersBasell Spheripol PP processDow UNIPOL PP processBorstar PP processVinyl chloride to Polyvinyl chloride PVCInnovyl Suspension PVCUHDE, Goodrich process

  • Polymer ProcessesEthylene to PolyethyleneLDPE, LLDPE, HDPEHigh pressure tubular process (LDPE)Chevron-Phillips slurry processBasell Spherilene process ( LLDPE/HDPE)NOVA- Sclairtech process ( LLDPE/HDPE)Propylene to PolypropylenePP, PE CopolymersBasell Spheripol PP processDow UNIPOL PP processBorstar PP processVinyl chloride to Polyvinyl chloride PVCInnovyl Suspension PVCUHDE, Goodrich process

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  • (SRT-Heaters)S as DMDS is injected to control CO & Coke

  • Selective hydrogenation of C2,C3 & C4 acetylenes in olefinic streams are the critical processes to get pure C2,C3 & C4 olefins

  • Propylene: Supply-Demand gap

  • C2H4 + C4H8 2 C3H6 Can be a stand alone unit or integrated with cracker/FCC unit Low investment, less energy intensive, attractive returns High propylene/ethylene yield ratios, varying from 0.5 to 1.1 Use of low cost C4 stream

    Process technologies META-4 (Axens IFP Group Technologies) OCT Olefins Conversion Technology (ABB Lummus) UOPs process

    Olefin metathesisDepends on relative costs of ethylene & propylene

  • Metathesis- Catalysts & Process conditions

  • Alternative routes to PropyleneOlefin Inter conversion Processes

    Catalytic cracking of C4- C5 streams or the light naphtha streams in a fixed or fluidized bed reactorCompatible with crackers and FCC unitsUnlike metathesis, do not consume ethylene.

    Process technologies

    Olefin Cracking Process (UOP-ATOFINA)Propylur (Lurgi)PCC process (Exxon Mobil)SUPERFLEX (Lyondell/Kellogg)Mobils Olefin Inter conversion Process (MOI)

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